A single membrane-embedded negative charge is critical for recognizing positively charged drugs by the Escherichia coli multidrug resistance protein MdfA.
The nature of the broad substrate specificity phenomenon, as manifested by multidrug resistance proteins, is not yet understood. In the Escherichia coli multidrug transporter, MdfA, the hydrophobicity profile and PhoA fusion analysis have so far identified only one membrane-embedded charged amino acid residue (E26). In order to determine whether this negatively charged residue may play a role in multidrug recognition, we evaluated the expression and function of MdfA constructs mutated at this position. Replacing E26 with the positively charged residue lysine abolished the multidrug resistance activity against positively charged drugs, but retained chloramphenicol efflux and resistance. In contrast, when the negative charge was preserved in a mutant with aspartate instead of E26, chloramphenicol recognition and transport were drastically inhibited; however, the mutant exhibited almost wild-type multidrug resistance activity against lipophilic cations. These results suggest that although the negative charge at position 26 is not essential for active transport, it dictates the multidrug resistance character of MdfA. We show that such a negative charge is also found in other drug resistance transporters, and its possible significance regarding multidrug resistance is discussed. (+info)
Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals. (+info)
SDZ PSC 833, the cyclosporine A analogue and multidrug resistance modulator, activates ceramide synthesis and increases vinblastine sensitivity in drug-sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells.
Resistance to chemotherapy is the major cause of cancer treatment failure. Insight into the mechanism of action of agents that modulate multidrug resistance (MDR) is instrumental for the design of more effective treatment modalities. Here we show, using KB-V-1 MDR human epidermoid carcinoma cells and [3H]palmitic acid as metabolic tracer, that the MDR modulator SDZ PSC 833 (PSC 833) activates ceramide synthesis. In a short time course experiment, ceramide was generated as early as 15 min (40% increase) after the addition of PSC 833 (5.0 microM), and by 3 h, [3H]ceramide was >3-fold that of control cells. A 24-h dose-response experiment showed that at 1.0 and 10 microM PSC 833, ceramide levels were 2.5- and 13.6-fold higher, respectively, than in untreated cells. Concomitant with the increase in cellular ceramide was a progressive decrease in cell survival, suggesting that ceramide elicited a cytotoxic response. Analysis of DNA in cells treated with PSC 833 showed oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation, characteristic of apoptosis. The inclusion of fumonisin B1, a ceramide synthase inhibitor, blocked PSC 833-induced ceramide generation. Assessment of ceramide mass by TLC lipid charring confirmed that PSC 833 markedly enhanced ceramide synthesis, not only in KB-V-1 cells but also in wild-type KB-3-1 cells. The capacity of PSC 833 to reverse drug resistance was demonstrated with vinblastine. Whereas each agent at a concentration of 1.0 microM reduced cell survival by approximately 20%, when PSC 833 and vinblastine were coadministered, cell viability fell to zero. In parallel experiments measuring ceramide metabolism, it was shown that the PSC 833/vinblastine combination synergistically increased cellular ceramide levels. Vinblastine toxicity, also intensified by PSC 833 in wild-type KB-3-1 cells, was as well accompanied by enhanced ceramide formation. These data demonstrate that PSC 833 has mechanisms of action in addition to P-glycoprotein chemotherapy efflux pumping. (+info)
Emergence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium phage-type DT104 among salmonellae causing enteritis in Israel.
The relative frequency of salmonella strains isolated from hospitalized and non-hospitalized patients in Southern Israel changed during the period, 1994-6. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive phage-type 104 (DT104) appeared in Israel in 1994 and became the most prevalent strain in 1996. An outbreak of enteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Agona occurred in Israel, in October 1994 and lasted for 4 months. The relative frequency of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis remained almost constant during these years, with seasonal fluctuations only. The importance of the increase in the prevalence of Typhimurium DT104 has been the epidemic spread of a multiresistant strain of R-type ACT (A, ampicillin; C, chloramphenicol; T, tetracycline) belonging to this phage-type. Since 1995 the frequency of Typhimurium DT104 isolates that possess, in addition to the above R-type, a chromosomally encoded resistance to the quinolone drug, nalidixic acid, increased tenfold. In 1996, 27% of the Typhimurium DT104 isolates were of R-type ACTN. S. Enteritidis exhibited over 95% susceptibility to at least eight of the most commonly used antibiotic drugs, and none of the isolates was resistant to quinolone or fluoroquinoline. (+info)
The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization of human cells to topoisomerase II inhibitor-induced apoptosis.
BACKGROUND: Among the inhibitors of the enzyme topoisomerase II (an important target for chemotherapeutic drugs) tested in the National Cancer Institute's In Vitro Antineoplastic Drug Screen, NSC 284682 (3'-hydroxydaunorubicin) and NSC 659687 [9-hydroxy-5,6-dimethyl-1-(N-[2(dimethylamino)ethyl]carbamoyl)-6H-pyrido -(4,3-b)carbazole] were the only compounds that were more cytotoxic to tumor cells harboring an activated ras oncogene than to tumor cells bearing wild-type ras alleles. Expression of the multidrug resistance proteins P-glycoprotein and MRP (multidrug resistance-associated protein) facilitates tumor cell resistance to topoisomerase II inhibitors. We investigated whether tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes showed enhanced sensitivity to other topoisomerase II inhibitors in the absence of the multidrug-resistant phenotype. METHODS: We studied 20 topoisomerase II inhibitors and individual cell lines with or without activated ras oncogenes and with varying degrees of multidrug resistance. RESULTS: In the absence of multidrug resistance, human tumor cell lines with activated ras oncogenes were uniformly more sensitive to most topoisomerase II inhibitors than were cell lines containing wild-type ras alleles. The compounds NSC 284682 and NSC 659687 were especially effective irrespective of the multidrug resistant phenotype. The ras oncogene-mediated sensitization to topoisomerase II inhibitors was far more prominent with the non-DNA-intercalating epipodophyllotoxins than with the DNA-intercalating inhibitors. This difference in sensitization appears to be related to a difference in apoptotic sensitivity, since the level of DNA damage generated by etoposide (an epipodophyllotoxin derivative) in immortalized human kidney epithelial cells expressing an activated ras oncogene was similar to that in the parental cells, but apoptosis was enhanced only in the former cells. CONCLUSIONS: Activated ras oncogenes appear to enhance the sensitivity of human tumor cells to topoisomerase II inhibitors by potentiating an apoptotic response. Epipodophyllotoxin-derived topoisomerase II inhibitors should be more effective than the DNA-intercalating inhibitors against tumor cells with activated ras oncogenes. (+info)
Efflux-mediated aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance in Burkholderia pseudomallei.
Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to a wide range of antimicrobial agents including beta-lactams, aminoglycosides, macrolides, and polymyxins. We used Tn5-OT182 to mutagenize B. pseudomallei to identify the genes involved in aminoglycoside resistance. We report here on the identification of AmrAB-OprA, a multidrug efflux system in B. pseudomallei which is specific for both aminoglycoside and macrolide antibiotics. We isolated two transposon mutants, RM101 and RM102, which had 8- to 128-fold increases in their susceptibilities to the aminoglycosides streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin, kanamycin, and spectinomycin. In addition, both mutants, in contrast to the parent, were susceptible to the macrolides erythromycin and clarithromycin but not to the lincosamide clindamycin. Sequencing of the DNA flanking the transposon insertions revealed a putative operon consisting of a resistance, nodulation, division-type transporter, a membrane fusion protein, an outer membrane protein, and a divergently transcribed regulatorprotein. Consistent with the presence of an efflux system, both mutants accumulated [3H] dihydro streptomycin, whereas the parent strain did not. We constructed an amr deletion strain, B. pseudomallei DD503, which was hypersusceptible to aminoglycosides and macrolides and which was used successfully in allelic exchange experiments. These results suggest that an efflux system is a major contributor to the inherent high-level aminoglycoside and macrolide resistance found in B. pseudomallei. (+info)
Molecular and biochemical characterization of VEB-1, a novel class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase encoded by an Escherichia coli integron gene.
A clinical isolate, Escherichia coli MG-1, isolated from a 4-month-old Vietnamese orphan child, produced a beta-lactamase conferring resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and aztreonam. In a disk diffusion test, a typical synergistic effect between ceftazidime or aztreonam and clavulanic acid was observed along with an unusual synergy between cefoxitin and cefuroxime. The gene for VEB-1 (Vietnamese extended-spectrum beta-lactamase) was cloned and expressed in E. coli JM109. The recombinant plasmid pRLT1 produced a beta-lactamase with a pI of 5.35 and conferred high-level resistance to extended-spectrum (or oxyimino) cephalosporins and to aztreonam. Vmax values for extended-spectrum cephalosporins were uncommonly high, while the affinity of the enzyme for ceftazidime and aztreonam was relatively low. blaVEB-1 showed significant homology at the DNA level with only blaPER-1 and blaPER-2. Analysis of the deduced protein sequence showed that VEB-1 is a class A penicillinase having very low levels of homology with any other known beta-lactamases. The highest percentage of amino acid identity was 38% with PER-1 or PER-2, two uncommon class A extended-spectrum enzymes. Exploration of the genetic environment of blaVEB-1 revealed the presence of gene cassette features, i.e., (i) a 59-base element associated with blaVEB-1; (ii) a second 59-base element just upstream of blaVEB-1, likely belonging to the aacA1-orfG gene cassette; (iii) two core sites (GTTRRRY) on both sides of blaVEB-1; and (iv) a second antibiotic resistance gene 3' of blaVEB-1, aadB. blaVEB-1 may therefore be the first class A extended-spectrum beta-lactamase that is part of a gene cassette, which itself is likely to be located on a class 1 integron, as sulfamide resistance may indicate. Furthermore, blaVEB-1 is encoded on a large (> 100-kb) transferable plasmid found in a Klebsiella pneumoniae MG-2 isolated at the same time from the same patient, indicating a horizontal gene transfer. (+info)
Antibiotic resistance conferred by a conjugative plasmid and a class I integron in Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated in Albania and Italy.
Multidrug-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor strains isolated during the 1994 outbreak of cholera in Albania and Italy were characterized for the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance. All strains were found to be resistant to tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, trimethoprim, sulfathiazole, and the vibriostatic compound O/129 (2,4-diamino-6,7-diisopropylteridine). Resistance genes were self-transferable by a conjugative plasmid of about 60 MDa, with the exception of spectinomycin resistance, which was conferred by the aadA1 gene cassette located in the bacterial chromosome within a class 1 integron. The resistance to trimethoprim and O/129 was conferred by the dfrA1 gene, which was present on the plasmid. Although the dfrA1 gene is known to be borne on an integron cassette, class 1, 2, or 3 intI genes were not detected as part of the plasmid DNA from the strains studied. (+info)