Electronic volume analysis of L1210 chemotherapy.
The rapid analysis of in vivo chemotherapy on the L1210 ascites tumor grown in C57BL/6 X DBA/2F1 mice has been shown by means of an electronic volume analysis. The drugs were injected on the 4th day of tumor growth, and the cells in the peritoneal cavity were studied at 24-hr intervals on the 5th through 7th day. Using the electronic cell volume distributions, combined with labeling indices, cell morphology, and cell counts, it was found that the alkylating agents. 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea and cyclophosphamide, at the dosages used, were more effective than the S-phase-specific drugs, palmitoyl ester of 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine, vincristine, and methotrexate. (+info)
Fluorimetric multiparameter cell assay at the single cell level fabricated by optical tweezers.
A fluorimetric multi-parameter cell sensor at the single cell level is presented which makes it possible to observe the physiological behavior of different cell lines, different physiological parameters, and statistical data at the same time. Different cell types were immobilized at predefined positions with high accuracy using optical tweezers and adhesion promoting surface layers. The process is applicable to both adherent and non-adherent cells. Coating of the immobilization area with mussel adhesive protein was shown to be essential for the process. Intracellular proton and calcium concentrations in different cell classes were simultaneously imaged and the specific activation of T lymphocytes was demonstrated. This method should be especially useful for drug screening due to the small sample volume and high information density. (+info)
Immunising potency of Leptospira interrogans serotype canicola after heat inactivation at different temperatures.
The immunogenicity of Leptospira interrogans serotype canicola suspensions inactivated by various degrees of heat exposure was examined in hamsters. No differences between leptospires killed at 50 degrees C and at 98 degrees C were shown. After exposure to 121 degrees C, suspensions retained their ability to protect against lethal infections but lost their ability to prevent leptospiruria. Tests with vaccines inactivated at or below 98 degrees C showed that the doses required for complete protection varied with the interval between vaccination and challenge. Larger doses were required to prevent the development of leptospiruria than to prevent death. (+info)
Screening of Korean forest plants for rat lens aldose reductase inhibition.
Naturally occurring substances which can prevent and treat diabetic complications were sought by examining ethanol extracts prepared from Korean forest plants for their inhibitory effects on rat lens aldose reductase activity in vitro. Among the plants examined, Acer ginnala, Illicium religiosum and Cornus macrophylla exerted the most strong inhibitory activity on aldose reductase. (+info)
Micronucleus test using cultured new born rat astrocytes.
Micronuclei is induced in cytoplasm as a consequence of the formation of chromosomal fragments or remaining chromosomes during cell division by the cause of clastogens or spindle poisons, and is used as an indicator of genotoxicity screening tests. There are few short-term genotoxicity screening tests using brain cells. We attempted to establish a new in vitro micronucleus test (MN test) system by use of central nervous system cells. Primary cultured astrocytes were prepared from newborn male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. In growth curve of astrocytes, doubling time was determined to be 31 h. In time study, the highest frequency of micronuclei was observed at 48 h, 72 h and 6 h-exposure-66 h-recovery by vincristine (VCR), mitomycin C (MMC) without metabolic activation system and cyclophosphamide (CPM) with metabolic activation system, respectively. Dose-response relationships between micronucleus frequency and concentrations of MMC, VCR and CPM were observed, respectively. It is suggested that the in vitro MN test using new born rat-astrocytes could be used as a screening test of environmental and occupational genotoxic chemicals in the central nervous system cells. (+info)
Recombinant soluble form of PSGL-1 accelerates thrombolysis and prevents reocclusion in a porcine model.
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether administration of a soluble recombinant P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 chimera (rPSGL-Ig) in conjunction with thrombolytic therapy would enhance thrombolysis by preventing ongoing interactions of leukocytes with platelets and the injured arterial wall. METHODS AND RESULTS: An occlusive thrombus was formed in an internal iliac artery of Yorkshire pigs by placement of a copper coil in the artery under fluoroscopic guidance. Pigs then received heparin and, 15 minutes later, either vehicle or rPSGL-Ig followed by infusion with 25 mg tissue plasminogen activator according to the 90-minute regimen. Blood flow through the artery was monitored by angiography and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Lysis of the thrombus was accelerated by 70% in pigs treated with rPSGL-Ig 250 microg/kg compared with control (13.3+/-5.0 versus 44. 4+/-13.3 minutes; n=9 each). Eight of 9 control pigs reoccluded in 13.8+/-16.9 minutes after the end of tissue plasminogen activator infusion, whereas no reocclusion was observed in 8 of 9 pigs in the rPSGL-Ig group. When the dose of rPSGL-Ig was increased to 500 microg/kg, time to lysis was shortened by 61% from control (18.0+/-8. 4 versus 46.0+/-8.9 minutes). Reocclusion occurred in 6.0+/-15.2 minutes in control but not in any rPSGL-Ig-treated pig (n=5 each). In addition, near-normal flow (score 2 or 3) after thrombolysis was achieved 59% and 58% faster in the 2 rPSGL-Ig groups than in their respective controls. CONCLUSIONS: Inhibition of leukocyte accumulation at the site of thrombosis with rPSGL-Ig may represent a safe therapeutic intervention that could be important in accelerating thrombolysis, achieving optimal reperfusion, and reducing incidence of acute reocclusion. (+info)
Recovery of the vestibulocolic reflex after aminoglycoside ototoxicity in domestic chickens.
Avian auditory and vestibular hair cells regenerate after damage by ototoxic drugs, but until recently there was little evidence that regenerated vestibular hair cells function normally. In an earlier study we showed that the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) is eliminated with aminoglycoside antibiotic treatment and recovers as hair cells regenerate. The VOR, which stabilizes the eye in the head, is an open-loop system that is thought to depend largely on regularly firing afferents. Recovery of the VOR is highly correlated with the regeneration of type I hair cells. In contrast, the vestibulocolic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space, is a closed-loop, negative-feedback system that seems to depend more on irregularly firing afferent input and is thought to be subserved by different circuitry than the VOR. We examined whether this different reflex also of vestibular origin would show similar recovery after hair cell regeneration. Lesions of the vestibular hair cells of 10-day-old chicks were created by a 5-day course of streptomycin sulfate. One day after completion of streptomycin treatment there was no measurable VCR gain, and total hair cell density was approximately 35% of that in untreated, age-matched controls. At 2 wk postlesion there was significant recovery of the VCR; at this time two subjects showed VCR gains within the range of control chicks. At 3 wk postlesion all subjects showed VCR gains and phase shifts within the normal range. These data show that the VCR recovers before the VOR. Unlike VOR gain, recovering VCR gain correlates equally well with the density of regenerating type I and type II vestibular hair cells, except at high frequencies. Several factors other than hair cell regeneration, such as length of stereocilia, reafferentation of hair cells, and compensation involving central neural pathways, may be involved in behavioral recovery. Our data suggest that one or more of these factors differentially affect the recovery of these two vestibular reflexes. (+info)
Coating titanium implants with bioglass and with hydroxyapatite. A comparative study in sheep.
This study compares the osteointegration of titanium implants coated with bioglass (Biovetro GSB formula) and with hydroxyapatite (HAP). Twenty-four bioglass-coated and 24 HAP-coated cylinders were implanted in the femoral diaphyses of sheep, and examined after 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 16 weeks. The HAP coating gave a stronger and earlier fixation to the bone than did bioglass. Bioglass formed a tissue interface which showed a macrophage reaction with little new bone formation activity. In contrast, HPA, showed intense new bone formation, with highly mineralised osseous trabeculae in the neighbourhood of the interface. (+info)