Phase I trial of docetaxel with filgrastim support in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors: a collaborative Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute and Children's Cancer Group trial.
Neutropenia is the dose-limiting toxicity of docetaxel in children. This Phase I trial was designed to determine the maximum tolerated dose, the dose-limiting toxicities, and the incidence and severity of other toxicities of docetaxel with filgrastim (G-CSF) support in children with refractory solid tumors. Docetaxel was administered as an i.v. infusion for 1 h every 21 days with a starting dose of 150 mg/m2 and an escalation to 185 mg/m2 and 235 mg/m2 in subsequent patient cohorts. G-CSF (5 microg/kg/day) was administered s.c., starting 48 h after docetaxel and continuing until the post-nadir neutrophil count reached 10,000/microl. Seventeen patients received 27 courses of docetaxel with G-CSF support. Generalized erythematous desquamating skin rash and myalgias were dose-limiting at 235 mg/m2. Localized and generalized rashes were seen at all of the three dose levels. Neutropenia (median nadir, 95/1microl) occurred at all of the dose levels but was brief in duration and not dose-limiting. Thrombocytopenia was minimal (median platelet count nadir, 139,000/microl), and the severity of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia did not seem to be related to the docetaxel dose. Other docetaxel-related toxicities included hemorrhage (associated with mucositis), sepsis, hypersensitivity reaction, transient elevation of liver enzymes, stomatitis, back pain, asthenia, and neuropathy. One minor response was observed in a patient with colon cancer. The maximum tolerated dose of docetaxel with G-CSF support in children is 185 mg/m2, which is 50% higher than the maximum tolerated dose of docetaxel alone in children and 85 % higher than the recommended adult dose. (+info)
A phase I single-dose trial of gadolinium texaphyrin (Gd-Tex), a tumor selective radiation sensitizer detectable by magnetic resonance imaging.
Gadolinium Texaphyrin (Gd-Tex) is a radiation sensitizer with a novel mechanism of action that sensitizes both oxic and hypoxic cells, localizes selectively in tumors, and is detectable by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This Phase I single-dose trial of Gd-Tex administered concurrently with radiation therapy was carried out to determine the maximally tolerated dose (MTD), dose-limiting toxicities, pharmacokinetics, and biolocalization of Gd-Tex as determined by MRI. Adults with incurable cancers of any histology requiring radiation therapy were eligible. A single i.v. dose of Gd-Tex was followed at least 2 h later by radiation therapy. The Gd-Tex dose was escalated in cohorts of 3 to 5 patients. Thirty-eight patients (median age, 58 years; range, 35-77 years) with incurable cancers of the lung (26), cervix (3), or other solid tumors (9) received a total of 41 single administrations of Gd-Tex. The Gd-Tex dose was escalated from 0.6 to 29.6 mg/kg. Irradiated sites included the thorax, brain, pelvis, bone, soft tissue, and sites of nodal metastases. The MTD was 22.3 mg/kg, determined by reversible acute tubular necrosis as the dose-limiting toxicities. Gd-Tex selectively accumulated in primary and metastatic tumors as demonstrated by MRI. No increase in radiation toxicity to normal tissues was seen. The median half-life of Gd-Tex after single-dose administration is 7.4 h. This study demonstrates that Gd-Tex is well tolerated in doses below the MTD, and that there is selective biolocalization in tumors. The maximum recommended dose for single administrations is 16.7 mg/kg. (+info)
Effectiveness of clopidogrel and aspirin versus ticlopidine and aspirin in preventing stent thrombosis after coronary stent implantation.
BACKGROUND: Ticlopidine has been shown to reduce the incidence of stent thrombosis compared with warfarin, but it may cause serious hematological side effects. Clopidogrel, a new thienopyridine derivative, may be a safe alternative to ticlopidine. The aim of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of clopidogrel and aspirin with those of ticlopidine and aspirin in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: The population of this study consisted of 2 groups: patients who underwent coronary stenting and were treated with ticlopidine and aspirin (TA group, n=1406), and patients who underwent coronary stenting followed by treatment with clopidogrel and aspirin (CA group, n=283). At 1-month follow-up, there was no difference in stent thrombosis (1.5% versus 1.4%, P=1.0) or major adverse cardiac events (3.1% versus 2.4%, P=0. 85) between the TA and CA groups, respectively. The probability of any side effect (neutropenia, diarrhea, rash) was significantly higher in the TA group (10.6% versus 5.3%, P=0.006; relative risk, 0. 53; CI, 0.32 to 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that clopidogrel may be an effective pharmacological regimen after coronary stent implantation. Furthermore, the simpler dosing regimen, the absence of neutropenia, and the lower frequency of other side effects make it a safe alternative to ticlopidine. (+info)
Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis like drug eruption: a case report.
We report a 54-year-old male patient who developed an unusual form of generalized drug eruption. He had pain and breathlessness on the left chest wall. He had history of taking several drugs at private clinics under a diagnosis of herpes zoster. Two weeks later he had a generalized skin eruption. Examination showed multiple variable sized, mild pruritic, erythematous macules and papules on the face and upper extremities. Skin lesions take the form of a clinically consistent with disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP). Methylprednisolone 16 mg, astemisole 10 mg, oxatomide 60 mg was prescribed. Topical corticosteroid cream was applied. Within two months, his eruption had cleared almost completely. The pathogenetic mechanisms of this case are unclear, but drug and UV light have been considered. (+info)
Management of opioid-induced pruritus: a role for 5-HT3 antagonists?
We have evaluated the efficacy of ondansetron in the prevention of opioid-induced pruritus in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Using a 'human model' of opioid-induced pruritus, 80 ASA I-II patients about to undergo routine surgery were given either ondansetron 4 mg i.v. or 0.9% saline i.v. (40 in each group), 30 min before alfentanil 10 mg kg-1 i.v. During the following 5 min, patients were observed for signs of perinasal scratching and at 5 min were asked about symptoms of pruritus. The study was then terminated and anaesthesia was induced. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of scratching in patients receiving ondansetron compared with placebo (42.5% vs 70%, respectively, P = 0.013). The incidence of itching in the ondansetron group was less than that in the placebo group but this was not statistically significant (30% vs 42.5%, respectively, P = 0.245). We conclude that the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron may have a role in the management of opioid-induced pruritus. (+info)
Modulation of irritation-induced increase of E-selectin mRNA in vivo by topically applied corticosteroids.
There is a continuous need for methods to evaluate the biologic effects of topically applied drugs in the skin. Irritation of the epidermis with sodium dodecyl sulfate leads to an upregulation of E-selectin on endothelial cells and E-selectin mRNA can be detected in vivo within a short time. This study was aimed to investigate whether this biologic response can be used as a read-out for the anti-inflammatory effect of topically administered corticosteroids. We investigated skin of healthy volunteers treated according to the two following experimental protocols: (i) topical application of different corticosteroids (versus basic ointments as controls) for 12 h and irritation with sodium dodecyl sulfate 1% for 4 h; (ii) irritation with sodium dodecyl sulfate 1% for 12 h and application of the corticosteroids for 5 h. The biopsy specimens were subjected to RNA extraction and reverse transcription and competitive reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction was performed using defined concentrations of a pre-constructed mimic DNA. As result, we found strong positive signals for wild-type E-selectin mRNA in all biopsies pretreated with basic ointments, whereas in biopsies from areas pretreated with corticosteroids the bands for wild-type E-selectin DNA could be detected at 10-1000 lower levels of mimic DNA concentrations. The reverse experiment, application of corticosteroids after the irritation, again yielded significantly reduced signals for E-selectin mRNA. In both experimental settings, the different strength of the topical corticosteroids used was reflected by significant differences in the amount of E-selectin mRNA found in the biopsies. This study demonstrates the pharmacologic effect of topical corticosteroids on the irritation-induced E-selectin mRNA expression on dermal endothelial cells in vivo using very small tissue samples and this approach may be of value for further pharmaceutical studies. (+info)
Tissue deposits of hydroxyethyl starch (HES): dose-dependent and time-related.
Tissue deposits occur after administration of plasma substitutes. After hydroxyethyl starch (HES), deposits may last for months, causing pruritus and impairment of function. Because elimination of HES deposits has not been demonstrated in humans, we studied 26 patients, for up to 7 yr after HES administration, to assess HES storage. HES dose ranged from 0.34 to 15.00 g kg-1 body weight, and administration intervals from 1 day to 7 yr. Biopsies of the liver, muscle, spleen, intestine or skin were studied using light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. HES storage was dose-dependent, decreased in all organs with time and was greater in patients suffering from pruritus. We conclude that tissue deposition of HES is transitory and dose-dependent, with differences between subjects in severity and duration. (+info)
Fully human anti-interleukin-8 monoclonal antibodies: potential therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory disease states.
Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is a potent chemotactic cytokine implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of inflammatory disease states. Agents that block the binding of IL-8 to its receptor have been shown to block inflammation in animal models of disease. This suggests that drugs specifically targeting IL-8 may prove efficacious in treating multiple human diseases. To this end, we developed a panel of fully human anti-IL-8 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These human antibodies were generated from XenoMouse strains, mice created by introducing megabase-size unrearranged human immunoglobulin heavy and kappa light chain loci into a mouse genome in which the corresponding endogenous loci have been inactivated. From the panel of more than 50 mAbs, two antibodies, K4.3 and K2.2, were further characterized and evaluated for their specificity, productivity, affinity, and biological activity. Both K4.3 and K2.2 bind human IL-8 with high affinity (Kd of K4.3 = 2.1x10(10) M; Kd of K2.2 = 2.5x10(-10) M). In vitro, in addition to blocking IL-8 binding to human neutrophils, K4.3 and K2.2 blocked a number of IL-8-dependent cellular functions including neutrophil activation, up-regulation of the cell adhesion receptor CD11b/CD18, and neutrophil chemotaxis, suggesting that the fully human anti-IL-8 mAbs derived from XenoMouse strains are potent anti-inflammatory agents. This was further supported by in vivo studies in which K4.3 and K2.2 significantly inhibited IL-8-induced skin inflammation in rabbits. A pharmacokinetic study in Cynomolgus monkeys demonstrated that the alpha phase half-life is 9.4 h and the beta phase 10.9 days, typical of human mAbs in monkeys. These data support advancing a fully human anti-IL-8 mAb into clinical trials to treat inflammatory diseases. (+info)