Incorporation rates, stabilities, cytotoxicities and release of liposomal tetracycline and doxycycline in human serum.
Tetracycline and doxycycline were encapsulated in cationic, anionic and neutral liposomes. The amounts of antibiotic encapsulated, the stability of each preparation at 4 degrees C for 4 weeks, and the kinetics of the release of entrapped drug into human sera were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The toxicities of the liposome preparations on human erythrocytes and HeLa 229 cells were evaluated in vitro. The results showed that doxycycline was entrapped more efficiently than tetracycline, and that doxycycline-entrapped liposomes were more stable at 4 degrees C and in human sera, and less cytotoxic than tetracycline-entrapped liposomes. (+info)
Reduction of the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rabbits and dogs by encapsulation in long-circulating, pegylated liposomes.
The relative cardiotoxicity of pegylated (STEALTH) liposomal doxorubicin (PL-DOX; Doxil) was compared to nonliposomal doxorubicin (Adriamycin) in rabbits and dogs treated i.v. for up to 22 weeks. No histological evidence of cardiotoxicity was seen in dogs treated with placebo liposomes or PL-DOX every 3 weeks for a total of 10 doses (cumulative doxorubicin dose = 10 mg/kg) either 1 or 5 weeks post-treatment. All dogs treated with the same cumulative dose of free doxorubicin showed marked cardiotoxicity (vacuolization and myofibrillar loss in the myocardium) at both time points. In rabbits, progressive cardiomyopathy was seen in both treatment groups, but was more frequent and severe with free doxorubicin (67% of doxorubicin-treated rabbits, cumulative dose = 12 to 14 mg/kg versus 16% of PL-DOX-treated animals, cumulative dose = 14 to 21 mg/kg). Five doxorubicin-treated rabbits died of congestive heart failure or with histologic evidence of cardiotoxicity (median severity score = 6). No PL-DOX-treated rabbits died of congestive heart failure, although two animals that died early showed microscopic evidence of mild cardiotoxicity (median severity score = 2.5). Cardiotoxicity increased during the post-treatment period in both treatment groups. Rabbits received up to 50% more PL-DOX with no increase in cardiotoxicity. Thus, results in two species demonstrate that the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin is significantly decreased when administered as PL-DOX. Significantly more PL-DOX can be given without incurring an increased risk of cardiomyopathy. Recent clinical studies have confirmed that PL-DOX is also less cardiotoxic than the same dose of unencapsulated doxorubicin in humans. (+info)
Candida albicans mannan extract-protein conjugates induce a protective immune response against experimental candidiasis.
Candida albicans mannan extracts encapsulated in liposomes were previously used to stimulate mice to produce antibodies protective against candidiasis. In the present study, mannan-protein conjugates without liposomes were tested as vaccine candidates. Mannan extracts were coupled to bovine serum albumin, and isolated conjugates consisted of carbohydrate and protein at a ratio of 0.7-1.0. Vaccination of mice with the conjugate and an adjuvant yielded antiserum that contained Candida agglutinins. Vaccinated mice challenged with yeast cells had a mean survival time of 56 days, compared with <13 days for control groups. The antiserum protected naive animals against disseminated disease. Naive mice given the antiserum intravaginally developed 79% fewer fungal colony-forming units, compared with control groups. The serum-protective factor was stable at 56 degrees C and was removed by adsorption with yeast cells. It is concluded that the conjugate vaccine can induce protective antibody responses against experimental disseminated candidiasis and Candida vaginal infection. (+info)
Why do microencapsulated islet grafts fail in the absence of fibrotic overgrowth?
The survival of microencapsulated islet grafts is limited, even if capsular overgrowth is restricted to a small percentage of the capsules. In search of processes other than overgrowth contributing to graft failure, we have studied the islets in non-overgrown capsules at several time points after allotransplantation in the rat. All recipients of islet allografts became normoglycemic. Grafts were retrieved at 4 and 8 weeks after implantation and at 15.3 +/- 2.3 weeks postimplant, 2 weeks after the mean time period at which graft failure occurred. Overgrowth of capsules was complete within 4 weeks postimplant, and it was usually restricted to <10% of the capsules. During the first 4 weeks of implantation, 40% of the initial number of islets was lost. Thereafter, we observed a decrease in function rather than in numbers of islets, as illustrated by a decline in the ex vivo glucose-induced insulin response. At 4 and 8 weeks postimplant, beta-cell replication was 10-fold higher in encapsulated islets than in islets in the normal pancreas, but these high replication rates were insufficient to prevent a progressive increase in the percentage of nonviable tissue in the islets. Necrosis and not apoptosis proved to be the major cause of cell death in the islets. The necrosis mainly occurred in the center of the islets, which indicates insufficient nutrition as a major causative factor. Our study demonstrates that not only capsular overgrowth but also an imbalance between beta-cell birth and beta-cell death contributes to the failure of encapsulated islet grafts. Our observations indicate that we should focus on finding or creating a transplantation site that, more than the unmodified peritoneal cavity, permits for close contact between the blood and the encapsulated islet tissue. (+info)
Local perivascular delivery of basic fibroblast growth factor in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery: results of a phase I randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
BACKGROUND: Angiogenesis is a promising treatment strategy for patients who are not candidates for standard revascularization, because it promotes the growth of new blood vessels in ischemic myocardium. METHODS AND RESULTS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF; 10 or 100 microg versus placebo) delivered via sustained-release heparin-alginate microcapsules implanted in ischemic and viable but ungraftable myocardial territories in patients undergoing CABG. Twenty-four patients were randomized to 10 microg of bFGF (n=8), 100 microg of bFGF (n=8), or placebo (n=8), in addition to undergoing CABG. There were 2 operative deaths and 3 Q-wave myocardial infarctions. There were no treatment-related adverse events, and there was no rise in serum bFGF levels. Clinical follow-up was available for all patients (16.0+/-6.8 months). Three control patients had recurrent angina, 2 of whom required repeat revascularization. One patient in the 10-microg bFGF group had angina, whereas all patients in the 100-microg bFGF group remained angina-free. Stress nuclear perfusion imaging at baseline and 3 months after CABG showed a trend toward worsening of the defect size in the placebo group (20.7+/-3.7% to 23.8+/-5.7%, P=0.06), no significant change in the 10-microg bFGF group, and significant improvement in the 100-microg bFGF group (19.2+/-5.0% to 9.1+/-5.9%, P=0.01). Magnetic resonance assessment of the target ischemic zone in a subset of patients showed a trend toward a reduction in the target ischemic area in the 100-microg bFGF group (10.7+/-3.9% to 3. 7+/-6.3%, P=0.06). CONCLUSIONS: This study of bFGF in patients undergoing CABG demonstrates the safety and feasibility of this mode of therapy in patients with viable myocardium that cannot be adequately revascularized. (+info)
Cationic microparticles: A potent delivery system for DNA vaccines.
An approach involving the preparation of biodegradable microparticles with a cationic surface was developed to improve the delivery of adsorbed DNA into antigen-presenting cells after i.m. injection. The microparticles released intact and functional DNA over 2 weeks in vitro. In addition, the microparticles induced higher levels of marker gene expression in vivo. After i.m. immunization, the microparticles induced significantly enhanced serum antibody responses in comparison to naked DNA. Moreover, the level of antibodies induced by the microparticles was significantly enhanced by the addition of a vaccine adjuvant, aluminum phosphate. In addition, in contrast to naked DNA, the cationic microparticles induced potent cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses at a low dose. (+info)
Peroral immunization of microencapsulated human VP8 in combination with cholera toxin induces intestinal antibody responses.
To develop an orally delivered subunit vaccine for rotavirus infection, a trypsin cleavage product of VP4, recombinant VP8*, was expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant VP8* (rVP8*), purified by affinity chromatography, was reactive against human rotavirus positive serum in Western-blot analysis. To further evaluate the immunogenicity of the oral-delivered rVP8*, it was encapsulated with alginate-microsphere and administered in combination with cholera toxin (CT) as a mucosal adjuvant perorally into mice. The ELISPOT assay showed that the number of rVP8*-specific IgG1 antibody secreting cells increased about 3-fold and about 2-fold in spleen and Peyer's patch, respectively as compared to non-immune mice. In addition, the number of rVP8*-specific IgA antibody secreting cells increased about 2-fold in Peyer's patch. Finally, rVP8*-specific IgA antibody response was significantly enhanced in the intestinal fluids from the mice immunized perorally with encapsulated rVP8* and CT. Taken together, these results indicate that rVP8* possessed proper immunogenicity and it would be potentially useful as a subunit vaccine against rotavirus-associated disease through peroral immunization. (+info)
Inhibition of inositol uptake in astrocytes by antisense oligonucleotides delivered by pH-sensitive liposomes.
An oligonucleotide of 20 bases, complementary to a region of the sodium/myo-inositol cotransporter (SMIT) mRNA, was used to investigate the uptake efficiency and activity of transferred antisense oligonucleotides with regard to substrate uptake. We compared the efficiency of oligonucleotide delivery after application of either free or liposome-encapsulated material. Delivery of liposome-encapsulated material (marker or oligonucleotides) into astrocytoma cells and primary astrocyte cultures was more effective with pH-sensitive liposomes [dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE)/cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHEMS)] than with non-pH-sensitive liposomes (soy lecithin) or free material in solution. Antisense activity was evaluated by determination of myo-inositol uptake and detection of SMIT transcripts by RT-PCR. Encapsulation of oligonucleotides in pH-sensitive liposomes increased the inhibition of inositol uptake at least 50-fold compared with application of free oligonucleotides in solution. (+info)