(1/20) Block of voltage-dependent calcium channels by aliphatic monoamines.
We have recently identified farnesol, an intermediate in the mevalonate pathway, as a potent endogenous modulator and blocker of N-type calcium channels (Roullet, J. B., R. L. Spaetgens, T. Burlingame, and G. W. Zamponi. 1999. J. Biol. Chem. 274:25439-25446). Here, we investigate the action of structurally related compounds on various types of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. 1-Dodecanol, despite sharing the 12-carbon backbone and headgroup of farnesol, exhibited a significantly lower blocking affinity for N-type Ca(2+) channels. Among several additional 12-carbon compounds tested, dodecylamine (DDA) mediated the highest affinity inhibition of N-type channels, indicating that the functional headgroup is a critical determinant of blocking affinity. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and relatively non-discriminatory among N-, L-, P/Q-, and R-Ca(2+) channel subtypes. However, whereas L-type channels exhibited predominantly resting channel block, the non-L-type isoforms showed substantial rapid open channel block manifested by a speeding of the apparent time course of current decay and block of the inactivated state. Consistent with these findings, we observed significant frequency-dependence of block and dependence on external Ba(2+) concentration for N-type, but not L-type, channels. We also systematically investigated the drug structural requirements for N-type channel inhibition. Blocking affinity varied with carbon chain length and showed a clear maximum at C12 and C13, with shorter and longer molecules producing progressively weaker peak current block. Overall, our data indicate that aliphatic monoamines may constitute a novel class of potent inhibitors of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, with block being governed by rigid structural requirements and channel-specific state dependencies. (+info)
(2/20) Synthesis of (3E, 5Z)-3,5-dodecadienylacetate, the sex pheromone of Phtheochroa cranaodes (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae.
(3E, 5Z)-3,5-Dodecadienyl acetate, the female sex pheromone of Phtheochroa cranaodes, was regio and stereo-selectively synthesized from 1-octyne and (E)-4bromo-3-buten-1-ol by using Pd(PPh3)4, CuI and piperidine to afford the enyne (5). Further elaboration afforded the target pheromone. The synthetic pheromone was identified with the natural product by its MS and IR, data GLC retention time and biological activity. (+info)
(3/20) Pheromone unwrapping by pH flip-flopping.
The Asian elephant utilizes the same sex pheromone as a number of moth species, (Z)-7-dodecen-1-yl acetate encapsulated in a serum-derived albumin. The chemical signal is emitted in the urine and received in the mucus of the trunk. The unwrapping of the package is pH mediated. (+info)
(4/20) Inhibition of firefly luciferase by alkane analogues.
We reported that anesthetics increased the partial molal volume of firefly luciferase (FFL), while long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) decreased it. The present study measured the actions of dodecanol (neutral), dodecanoic acid (negatively charged), and dodecylamine (positively charged) hydrophobic molecules on FFL. The interaction modes are measured by (1) ATP-induced bioluminescence of FFL and (2) fluorescence of 2-(p-toluidino)naphthalene-6-sulfonate (TNS). TNS fluoresces brightly in hydrophobic media. It competes with the substrate luciferin on the FFL binding. From the Scatchard plot of TNS titration, the maximum binding number of TNS was 0.83, and its binding constant was 8.27 x 10(5) M(-1). Job's plot also showed that the binding number is 0.89. From the TNS titration of FFL, the binding constant was estimated to be 8.8 x 10(5) M(-1). Dodecanoic acid quenched the TNS fluorescence entirely. Dodecanol quenched about 25% of the fluorescence, whereas dodecylamine increased it. By comparing the fluorescence of TNS and bioluminescence of FFL, the binding modes and the inhibition mechanisms of these dodecane analogues are classified in three different modes: competitive (dodecanoic acid), noncompetitive (dodecylamine), and mixed (dodecanol). (+info)
(5/20) Biological effect of 1-dodecanol in teneral and post-teneral Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).
Topical application of 1-dodecanol was significantly more toxic against teneral first nymphs (1-3 h old) than post-teneral first nymphs (24 h old). The lethal dose ratios were 711,500 for Rhodnius prolixus and 3613 for Triatoma infestans. No significative difference between LD50 was found when 1-dodecanol was injected in recently hatched adult R. prolixus (1-4 h old) nor in older adults (24 h old). These values were similar to those calculated for deltamethrin (an effective triatomicide), showing that 1-dodecanol had no insecticidal properties when it was applied by injection. Topical application of high dose of 1-dodecanol (1 microg/i) on teneral first nymphs of R. prolixus, produced an interruption of the darkening process of the cuticle, and probably in the development of its physiological properties. (+info)
(6/20) Farnesol and dodecanol effects on the Candida albicans Ras1-cAMP signalling pathway and the regulation of morphogenesis.
Candida albicans hypha formation which has been stimulated via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 signalling cascade is inhibited by farnesol, a C. albicans autoregulatory factor, and small molecules such as dodecanol. In cultures containing farnesol or dodecanol, hypha formation was restored upon addition of dibutyryl-cAMP. The CAI4-Ras1(G13V) strain, which carries a dominant-active variant of Ras1 and forms hyphae in the absence of inducing stimuli, grew as yeast in medium with farnesol or dodecanol; the heat shock sensitivity of the CAI4-Ras1(G13V) strain was also suppressed by these compounds. Neither Pde1 nor Pde2 was necessary for the repression of hyphal growth by farnesol or dodecanol. Two transcripts, CTA1 and HSP12, which are at higher levels upon mutation of Ras1 or Cdc35, were increased in abundance in cells grown with farnesol or dodecanol. Microscopic analysis of strains carrying CTA1 and HWP1 promoter fusions grown with intermediate concentrations of farnesol or dodecanol indicated a link between cells with the increased expression of cAMP-repressed genes and cells repressed for hypha formation. Because several cAMP-controlled outputs are affected by farnesol and dodecanol, our findings suggest that these compounds impact activity of the Ras1-Cdc35 pathway, thus leading to an alteration of C. albicans morphology. (+info)
(7/20) Adsorption of thiocyanate ions to the dodecanol/water interface characterized by UV second harmonic generation.
(8/20) Comparison of lures loaded with codlemone and pear ester for capturing codling moths, Cydia pomonella, in apple and pear orchards using mating disruption.