Effects of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid on lipid metabolism, eicosanoid production, platelet aggregation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rats.
Exogenously hypercholesterolemic (ExHC) rats were fed on an atherogenic diet supplemented with 1% each of either ethyl ester docosahexaenoic acid [EE-DHA, 22:6(n-3)], ethyl ester eicosapentaenoic acid [EE-EPA, 20:5(n-3)] or safflower oil (SO) for 6 months. The rats fed on the diets containing EE-EPA or EE-DHA, compared with those fed on SO, had lower serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels, less aggregation of platelets and slower progress of intimal thickening in the ascending aorta. Relative to the SO-fed rats, both of the (n-3) fatty acid-fed rats had a significantly reduced proportion of arachidonic acid in the platelet and aortic phospholipids, and lower production of thromboxane A2 by platelets and of prostacyclin by the aorta. These results suggest that EPA and DHA are similarly involved in preventing atherosclerosis development by reducing hypercholesterolemia and modifying the platelet functions. (+info)
Dietary effect of EPA-rich and DHA-rich fish oils on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats.
The dietary effect of fish oils (FOs) rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the immune function of Sprague-Dawley rats was compared with that of safflower oil. After 3 weeks of feeding at the 10% level of a dietary fat, the IgG and IgM production by splenocytes and IgG production by mesenteric lymph node (MLN) lymphocytes were significantly higher in the FO-fed rats, while no significant difference was found in IgA or IgE productivity by both the spleen and MLN lymphocytes. In the FO-fed rats, peritoneal exudate cells released a lower amount of LTB4, reflecting their lower arachidonic acid level, and a higher amount of LTB5, reflecting their higher EPA level in phospholipids. On these EPA-rich FO exerted a stronger effect than DHA-rich FO immune functions. (+info)
Plasmalogen status influences docosahexaenoic acid levels in a macrophage cell line. Insights using ether lipid-deficient variants.
Previously, this laboratory reported the isolation of variants, RAW. 12 and RAW.108, from the macrophage-like cell line RAW 264.7 that are defective in plasmalogen biosynthesis [Zoeller, R.A. et al. 1992. J. Biol. Chem. 267: 8299-8306]. Fatty acid analysis showed significant changes in the mutants in the ethanolamine phospholipids (PE), the only phospholipid class in which the plasmalogen species, plasmenylethanolamine, contributes significantly. Within the PE fraction, docosapentaenoic (DPA; 22:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic (DHA; 22:6n-3) acids were reduced by approximately 50% in the variants while the levels of arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) remained unaffected. The decrease in DHA was accompanied by a 50% decrease in labeling PE with [3H]DHA over a 90-min period. Restoration of plasmenylethanolamine by supplementing the growth medium with sn -1-hexadecylglycerol (HG) completely reversed these changes in RAW. 108. Pre-existing pools of plasmenylethanolamine were not required for restoration of normal [3H]DHA labeling; addition of HG only during the labeling period was sufficient. Due to the loss of Delta1'-desaturase in RAW.12, HG supplementation resulted in the accumulation of plasmenylethanolamine's immediate biosynthetic precursor, plasmanylethanolamine. Even though this latter phospholipid contained only the ether functionality (lacking the vinyl ether double bond) it was sufficient to restore wild type-like fatty acid composition and DHA labeling of the ethanolamine phospholipids, identifying the ether bond as a structural determinant for this specificity. In summary, we have used these mutants to establish that the plasmalogen status of a cell can influence the levels of certain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These results support the notion that certain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as DHA, can be selectively targeted to plasmalogens and that this targeting occurs during de novo biosynthesis, or shortly thereafter, through modification of nascent plasmalogen pools. (+info)
Fish oil constituent docosahexa-enoic acid selectively inhibits growth of human papillomavirus immortalized keratinocytes.
The omega-3-fatty acids inhibit proliferation of breast cancer cells whereas omega-6-fatty acids stimulate growth. In this study, we examined effects of these fatty acids on human pre-cancerous cells. Cervical keratinocytes, immortalized with the oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16, were treated with linoleic acid, an omega-6-fatty acid, and the omega-3-fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids. Using both cell counts and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, docosahexaenoic acid inhibited growth of these cells to a greater extent than eicosapenta-enoic acid. Linoleic acid had no effect. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid was dose dependent and caused growth arrest. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibited growth of HPV16 immortalized foreskin keratinocytes and laryngeal keratinocytes grown from explants of benign tumors caused by papillomavirus, but had no effect on normal foreskin and laryngeal keratinocytes. Docosahexaenoic acid inhibited growth in the presence of estradiol, a growth stimulator for these cells. Indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase inhibitor like docosahexaenoic acid, had only minimal effect on growth. Alpha-tocopherol, a peroxidation inhibitor, abrogated effects of docosahexaenoic acid implying that inhibitory effects were via lipid peroxidation. (+info)
Effect of prostanoids and their precursors on the aggregation of rainbow trout thrombocytes.
The role of prostanoids and their precursor fatty acids in the aggregatory response of thrombocytes (platelet equivalents of fish) from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was studied. Aggregation of these cells was induced by the thromboxane mimetic U-46619 or arachidonic acid (AA) in the presence of human or trout fibrinogen. The production of TXB2/3 by thrombocytes in response to stimulation with AA was inhibited by aspirin, ibuprofen, and indomethacin. However, thrombocyte aggregation in response to AA stimulation was not significantly altered by these agents at the concentrations tested (10-100 microM), with the exception of indomethacin at 20 and 40 microM. Effects on cytosolic calcium concentration have been suggested as an alternative mechanism for the inhibitory action of indomethacin on human platelet aggregation. The present study, however, failed to identify this as a mechanism for the inhibition of U-46619-induced trout thrombocyte aggregation by indomethacin. The polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid both exhibited an inhibitory effect on U-46619-induced thrombocyte aggregation similar to that observed with mammalian platelets. Unlike the case in mammalian hemostasis, prostacyclin inhibited thrombocyte aggregation only at high concentrations (>5 microM). Prostaglandin E2, however, inhibited thrombocyte aggregation at much lower concentrations (>0.01 microM), suggesting that it may be the major inhibitory eicosanoid in trout. (+info)
Activation of NADPH oxidase by docosahexaenoic acid hydroperoxide and its inhibition by a novel retinal pigment epithelial protein.
PURPOSE: In an earlier study, a novel retinal pigment epithelial protective protein (RPP) was described, which suppresses the superoxide generation of activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). In experimental autoimmune uveitis, docosahexaenoic acid hydroperoxide (22:6OOH) has been shown to be the major lipid peroxidation product in photoreceptors. This hydroperoxide was also found to be chemotactic to PMNs. This study was undertaken to evaluate the activation capability of 22:6OOH in resting PMNs and the possible inhibition of this activation by RPP. METHODS: The 22:6OOH was obtained from pure 22:6 and was purified by thin-layer and high-performance liquid chromatography. Intact rabbit peritoneal PMNs (7-8 X 10(5)) were coincubated with 0.5 microM formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP), 1.3 microM 22:6OOH, or 5.0 microM 22:6. These systems were coincubated with and without 0.25 microg/ml RPP. From PMN cell-free preparations, the reconstitutes each containing 21 microg plasma membranes and 276 microg cytosolic factors were coincubated with arachidonate, 22:6OOH, or 22:6, each at 100 microM. The inhibition of superoxide production was estimated by adding 0.20 microg/ml RPP. Superoxide generation was measured by superoxide dismutase-inhibitable cytochrome C reduction. RESULTS: In 30 minutes, 22:6OOH-activated PMNs produced 11.10 +/- 0.68 nanomoles superoxide, and production was suppressed 72% by RPP. Under the same conditions, fMLP induced production of 34.6 +/- 2.77 nanomoles superoxide, and RPP inhibited 60% of production. In the PMN cell-free systems, 100 microM 22:6OOH induced 74.7 nanomoles superoxide per milligram plasma membrane proteins per 5 minutes, and RPP suppressed 50% of production. These results were comparable with those generated by arachidonate, a known stimulator for this system. RPP was effective only when it was added before assembly of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. CONCLUSIONS: The inflammation-mediated retinal peroxidation product 22:6OOH significantly activates resting PMNs, either in intact cells or in cell-free preparations, to increase further the release of superoxide from PMNs, thus accelerating inflammation-mediated tissue damage. This profound amplification process seems to be effectively downregulated by an RPE-generated protein RPP. (+info)
Concentration of serum lipids and aortic lesion size in female and male apo E-deficient mice fed docosahexaenoic acid.
Apolipoprotein (apo) E-deficient mice were fed an atherogenic diet with either 1% ethyl ester docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) or safflower oil (SO) as a source of linoleic acid for 8 week. Both genders fed DHA had higher proportions of eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA, and lower proportions of linoleic and arachidonic acids in the liver and serum phospholipids than those fed SO. Males fed DHA had greater liver weight and tended to have higher concentrations of serum lipids and liver cholesterol than those fed SO, and there were opposite trends in females. Dietary fats and gender led to no significant effect on lesion sizes in aortic arch and thoracic plus abdominal aorta. These results indicate that the interactive action of sex-related factor(s) with dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids is involved in metabolic changes of serum lipids in apoE-deficient mice, and addition of DHA, compared with addition of SO, is not effective to abolish the atherosclerosis in this animal model. (+info)
Cytotoxic drugs efficacy correlates with adipose tissue docosahexaenoic acid level in locally advanced breast carcinoma.
Experimental studies indicated that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may increase sensitivity of mammary tumours to several cytotoxic drugs. To evaluate this hypothesis in breast cancer, we have prospectively studied the association between levels of fatty acids stored in breast adipose tissue and the response of the tumour to chemotherapy in 56 patients with an initially localized breast carcinoma. Adipose breast tissue was obtained at the time of biopsy, and individual fatty acids were measured as a percentage of total fatty acids using capillary gas chromatography. Patients then received primary chemotherapy, combining mitoxantrone, vindesine, cyclophosphamide and 5-fluorouracil every 4 weeks. Tumour size was reassessed after three cycles of chemotherapy. Tumour response was evaluated according to World Health Organization criteria. Complete or partial response to chemotherapy was achieved in 26 patients (47%). Level of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in adipose tissue was higher in the group of patients with complete or partial response to chemotherapy than in patients with no response or with tumour progression (P < 0.004). Among n-3 polyunsaturated, only docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) was significantly associated with tumour response (P < 0.005). In a logistic regression analysis taking into account age, body mass index and tumour size, 22:6 n-3 level proved to be an independent predictor for chemosensitivity (P = 0.03). These results suggest that, in breast cancer, 22:6 n-3 may increase the response of the tumour to the cytotoxic agents used. (+info)