Replication-dependent marking of DNA by PCNA facilitates CAF-1-coupled inheritance of chromatin.
Chromatin assembly factor 1 (CAF-1) is required for inheritance of epigenetically determined chromosomal states in vivo and promotes assembly of chromatin during DNA replication in vitro. Herein, we demonstrate that after DNA replication, replicated, but not unreplicated, DNA is also competent for CAF-1-dependent chromatin assembly. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a DNA polymerase clamp, is a component of the replication-dependent marking of DNA for chromatin assembly. The clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), can reverse this mark by unloading PCNA from the replicated DNA. PCNA binds directly to p150, the largest subunit of CAF-1, and the two proteins colocalize at sites of DNA replication in cells. We suggest that PCNA and CAF-1 connect DNA replication to chromatin assembly and the inheritance of epigenetic chromosome states. (+info)
Mutants of Tn3 resolvase which do not require accessory binding sites for recombination activity.
Tn3 resolvase promotes site-specific recombination between two res sites, each of which has three resolvase dimer-binding sites. Catalysis of DNA-strand cleavage and rejoining occurs at binding site I, but binding sites II and III are required for recombination. We used an in vivo screen to detect resolvase mutants that were active on res sites with binding sites II and III deleted (that is, only site I remaining). Mutations of amino acids Asp102 (D102) or Met103 (M103) were sufficient to permit catalysis of recombination between site I and a full res, but not between two copies of site I. A double mutant resolvase, with a D102Y mutation and an additional activating mutation at Glu124 (E124Q), recombined substrates containing only two copies of site I, in vivo and in vitro. In these novel site Ixsite I reactions, product topology is no longer restricted to the normal simple catenane, indicating synapsis by random collision. Furthermore, the mutants have lost the normal specificity for directly repeated sites and supercoiled substrates; that is, they promote recombination between pairs of res sites in linear molecules, or in inverted repeat in a supercoiled molecule, or in separate molecules. (+info)
Inhibition of DNA supercoiling-dependent transcriptional activation by a distant B-DNA to Z-DNA transition.
Negative DNA superhelicity can destabilize the local B-form DNA structure and can drive transitions to other conformations at susceptible sites. In a molecule containing multiple susceptible sites, superhelicity can couple these alternatives together, causing them to compete. In principle, these superhelically driven local structural transitions can be either facilitated or inhibited by proteins that bind at or near potential transition sites. If a DNA region that is susceptible to forming a superhelically induced alternate structure is stabilized in the B-form by a DNA-binding protein, its propensity for transition will be transferred to other sites within the same domain. If one of these secondary sites is in a promoter region, this transfer could facilitate open complex formation and thereby activate gene expression. We previously proposed that a supercoiling-dependent, DNA structural transmission mechanism of this type is responsible for the integration host factor-mediated activation of transcription from the ilvPG promoter of Escherichia coli (Sheridan, S. D., Benham, C. J. & Hatfield, G. W. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 21298-21308). In this report we confirm the validity of this mechanism by demonstrating the ability of a distant Z-DNA-forming site to compete with the superhelical destabilization that is required for integration host factor-mediated transcriptional activation, and thereby delay its occurrence. (+info)
Specific binding of high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein and histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon promoter: HMGI protein acts as a potential antirepressor of the promoter.
The high-mobility-group I (HMGI) protein is a nonhistone component of active chromatin. In this work, we demonstrate that HMGI protein specifically binds to the AT-rich region of the murine beta interferon (IFN-beta) promoter localized upstream of the murine virus-responsive element (VRE). Contrary to what has been described for the human promoter, HMGI protein did not specifically bind to the VRE of the murine IFN-beta promoter. Stably transfected promoters carrying mutations on this HMGI binding site displayed delayed virus-induced kinetics of transcription. When integrated into chromatin, the mutated promoter remained repressed and never reached normal transcriptional activity. Such a phenomenon was not observed with transiently transfected promoters upon which chromatin was only partially reconstituted. Using UV footprinting, we show that the upstream AT-rich sequences of the murine IFN-beta promoter constitute a preferential binding region for histone H1. Transfection with a plasmid carrying scaffold attachment regions as well as incubation with distamycin led to the derepression of the IFN-beta promoter stably integrated into chromatin. In vitro, HMGI protein was able to displace histone H1 from the upstream AT-rich region of the wild-type promoter but not from the promoter carrying mutations on the upstream high-affinity HMGI binding site. Our results suggest that the binding of histone H1 to the upstream AT-rich region of the promoter might be partly responsible for the constitutive repression of the promoter. The displacement by HMGI protein of histone H1 could help to convert the IFN-beta promoter from a repressed to an active state. (+info)
Analysis of DNA cleavage by reverse gyrase from Sulfolobus shibatae B12.
Reverse gyrase is a type I-5' topoisomerase, which catalyzes a positive DNA supercoiling reaction in vitro. To ascertain how this reaction takes places, we looked at the DNA sequences recognized by reverse gyrase. We used linear DNA fragments of its preferred substrate, the viral SSV1 DNA, which has been shown to be positively supercoiled in vivo. The Sulfolobus shibatae B12 strain, an SSV1 virus host, was chosen for production of reverse gyrase. This naturally occurring system (SSV1 DNA-S. shibatae reverse gyrase) allowed us to determine which SSV1 DNA sequences are bound and cleaved by the enzyme with particularly high selectivity. We show that the presence of ATP decreases the number of cleaved complexes obtained whereas the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate increases it without changing the sequence specificity. (+info)
Expression and characterization of a DNase I-Fc fusion enzyme.
Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I (DNase I) is an important clinical agent that is inhaled into the airways where it degrades DNA to lower molecular weight fragments, thus reducing the viscoelasticity of sputum and improving the lung function of cystic fibrosis patients. To investigate DNases with potentially improved properties, we constructed a molecular fusion of human DNase I with the hinge and Fc region of human IgG1 heavy chain, creating a DNase I-Fc fusion protein. Infection of Sf9 insect cells with recombinant baculovirus resulted in the expression and secretion of the DNase I-Fc fusion protein. The fusion protein was purified from the culture medium using protein A affinity chromatography followed by desalting by gel filtration and was characterized by amino-terminal sequence, amino acid composition, and a variety of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and activity assays. The purified fusion contains DNase I, as determined by a DNase I ELISA and an actin-binding ELISA, and an intact antibody Fc region, which was quantified by an Fc ELISA, in a 2:1 stoichiometric ratio, respectively. The dimeric DNase I-Fc fusion was functionally active in enzymatic DNA digestion assays, albeit about 10-fold less than monomeric DNase I. Cleavage of the DNase I-Fc fusion by papain resulted in a specific activity comparable to the monomeric enzyme. Salt was inhibitory for wild type monomeric DNase I but actually enhanced the activity of the dimeric DNase I-Fc fusion. The DNase I-Fc fusion protein was also less Ca2+-dependent than DNase I itself. These results are consistent with a higher affinity of the dimeric fusion protein to DNA than monomeric DNase I. The engineered DNase I-Fc fusion protein described herein has properties that may have clinical benefits. (+info)
Pokeweed antiviral protein cleaves double-stranded supercoiled DNA using the same active site required to depurinate rRNA.
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are N-glycosylases that remove a specific adenine from the sarcin/ricin loop of the large rRNA in a manner analogous to N-glycosylases that are involved in DNA repair. Some RIPs have been reported to remove adenines from single-stranded DNA and cleave double-stranded supercoiled DNA. The molecular basis for the activity of RIPs on double-stranded DNA is not known. Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP), a single-chain RIP from Phytolacca americana, cleaves supercoiled DNA into relaxed and linear forms. Double-stranded DNA treated with PAP contains apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites due to the removal of adenine. Using an active-site mutant of PAP (PAPx) which does not depurinate rRNA, we present evidence that double-stranded DNA treated with PAPx does not contain AP sites and is not cleaved. These results demonstrate for the first time that PAP cleaves supercoiled double-stranded DNA using the same active site that is required for depurination of rRNA. (+info)
Extracellular signal-regulated kinase activates topoisomerase IIalpha through a mechanism independent of phosphorylation.
The mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-related kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2, regulate cellular responses by mediating extracellular growth signals toward cytoplasmic and nuclear targets. A potential target for ERK is topoisomerase IIalpha, which becomes highly phosphorylated during mitosis and is required for several aspects of nucleic acid metabolism, including chromosome condensation and daughter chromosome separation. In this study, we demonstrated interactions between ERK2 and topoisomerase IIalpha proteins by coimmunoprecipitation from mixtures of purified enzymes and from nuclear extracts. In vitro, diphosphorylated active ERK2 phosphorylated topoisomerase IIalpha and enhanced its specific activity by sevenfold, as measured by DNA relaxation assays, whereas unphosphorylated ERK2 had no effect. However, activation of topoisomerase II was also observed with diphosphorylated inactive mutant ERK2, suggesting a mechanism of activation that depends on the phosphorylation state of ERK2 but not on its kinase activity. Nevertheless, activation of ERK by transient transfection of constitutively active mutant MAP kinase kinase 1 (MKK1) enhanced endogenous topoisomerase II activity by fourfold. Our findings indicate that ERK regulates topoisomerase IIalpha in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a potential target for the MKK/ERK pathway in the modulation of chromatin reorganization events during mitosis and in other phases of the cell cycle. (+info)