The 3'-->5' exonucleases of DNA polymerases delta and epsilon and the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1 have major roles in postreplication mutation avoidance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Replication fidelity is controlled by DNA polymerase proofreading and postreplication mismatch repair. We have genetically characterized the roles of the 5'-->3' Exo1 and the 3'-->5' DNA polymerase exonucleases in mismatch repair in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by using various genetic backgrounds and highly sensitive mutation detection systems that are based on long and short homonucleotide runs. Genetic interactions were examined among DNA polymerase epsilon (pol2-4) and delta (pol3-01) mutants defective in 3'-->5' proofreading exonuclease, mutants defective in the 5'-->3' exonuclease Exo1, and mismatch repair mutants (msh2, msh3, or msh6). These three exonucleases play an important role in mutation avoidance. Surprisingly, the mutation rate in an exo1 pol3-01 mutant was comparable to that in an msh2 pol3-01 mutant, suggesting that they participate directly in postreplication mismatch repair as well as in other DNA metabolic processes. (+info)
Evolutionary relationships of pathogenic clones of Vibrio cholerae by sequence analysis of four housekeeping genes.
Studies of the Vibrio cholerae population, using molecular typing techniques, have shown the existence of several pathogenic clones, mainly sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones. However, the relationship of the pathogenic clones to environmental V. cholerae isolates remains unclear. A previous study to determine the phylogeny of V. cholerae by sequencing the asd (aspartate semialdehyde dehydrogenase) gene of V. cholerae showed that the sixth-pandemic, seventh-pandemic, and U.S. Gulf Coast clones had very different asd sequences which fell into separate lineages in the V. cholerae population. As gene trees drawn from a single gene may not reflect the true topology of the population, we sequenced the mdh (malate dehydrogenase) and hlyA (hemolysin A) genes from representatives of environmental and clinical isolates of V. cholerae and found that the mdh and hlyA sequences from the three pathogenic clones were identical, except for the previously reported 11-bp deletion in hlyA in the sixth-pandemic clone. Identical sequences were obtained, despite average nucleotide differences in the mdh and hlyA genes of 1.52 and 3.25%, respectively, among all the isolates, suggesting that the three pathogenic clones are closely related. To extend these observations, segments of the recA and dnaE genes were sequenced from a selection of the pathogenic isolates, where the sequences were either identical or substantially different between the clones. The results show that the three pathogenic clones are very closely related and that there has been a high level of recombination in their evolution. (+info)
Double-strand break repair in yeast requires both leading and lagging strand DNA polymerases.
Mitotic double-strand break (DSB)-induced gene conversion at MAT in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was analyzed molecularly in mutant strains thermosensitive for essential replication factors. The processivity cofactors PCNA and RFC are essential even to synthesize as little as 30 nucleotides following strand invasion. Both PCNA-associated DNA polymerases delta and epsilon are important for gene conversion, though a temperature-sensitive Pol epsilon mutant is more severe than one in Pol delta. Surprisingly, mutants of lagging strand replication, DNA polymerase alpha (pol1-17), DNA primase (pri2-1), and Rad27p (rad27 delta) also greatly inhibit completion of DSB repair, even in G1-arrested cells. We propose a novel model for DSB-induced gene conversion in which a strand invasion creates a modified replication fork, involving leading and lagging strand synthesis from the donor template. Replication is terminated by capture of the second end of the DSB. (+info)
Studies on the interactions between human replication factor C and human proliferating cell nuclear antigen.
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a processivity factor required for DNA polymerase delta (or epsilon)-catalyzed DNA synthesis. When loaded onto primed DNA templates by replication factor C (RFC), PCNA acts to tether the polymerase to DNA, resulting in processive DNA chain elongation. In this report, we describe the identification of two separate peptide regions of human PCNA spanning amino acids 36-55 and 196-215 that bind RFC by using the surface plasmon resonance technique. Site-directed mutagenesis of residues within these regions in human PCNA identified two specific sites that affected the biological activity of PCNA. Replacement of the aspartate 41 residue by an alanine, serine, or asparagine significantly impaired the ability of PCNA to (i) support the RFC/PCNA-dependent polymerase delta-catalyzed elongation of a singly primed DNA template; (ii) stimulate RFC-catalyzed DNA-dependent hydrolysis of ATP; (iii) be loaded onto DNA by RFC; and (iv) activate RFC-independent polymerase delta-catalyzed synthesis of poly dT. Introduction of an alanine at position 210 in place of an arginine also reduced the efficiency of PCNA in supporting RFC-dependent polymerase delta-catalyzed elongation of a singly primed DNA template. However, this mutation did not significantly alter the ability of PCNA to stimulate DNA polymerase delta in the absence of RFC but substantially lowered the efficiency of RFC-catalyzed reactions. These results are in keeping with a model in which surface exposed regions of PCNA interact with RFC and the subsequent loading of PCNA onto DNA orients the elongation complex in a manner essential for processive DNA synthesis. (+info)
Replication fork assembly at recombination intermediates is required for bacterial growth.
PriA, a 3' --> 5' DNA helicase, directs assembly of a primosome on some bacteriophage and plasmid DNAs. Primosomes are multienzyme replication machines that contribute both the DNA-unwinding and Okazaki fragment-priming functions at the replication fork. The role of PriA in chromosomal replication is unclear. The phenotypes of priA null mutations suggest that the protein participates in replication restart at recombination intermediates. We show here that PriA promotes replication fork assembly at a D loop, an intermediate formed during initiation of homologous recombination. We also show that DnaC810, encoded by a naturally arising intergenic suppressor allele of the priA2::kan mutation, bypasses the need for PriA during replication fork assembly at D loops in vitro. These findings underscore the essentiality of replication fork restart at recombination intermediates under normal growth conditions in bacteria. (+info)
The C-terminal domain of dnaQ contains the polymerase binding site.
The Escherichia coli dnaQ gene encodes the 3'-->5' exonucleolytic proofreading (epsilon) subunit of DNA polymerase III (Pol III). Genetic analysis of dnaQ mutants has suggested that epsilon might consist of two domains, an N-terminal domain containing the exonuclease and a C-terminal domain essential for binding the polymerase (alpha) subunit. We have created truncated forms of dnaQ resulting in epsilon subunits that contain either the N-terminal or the C-terminal domain. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we analyzed the interactions of the single-domain epsilon subunits with the alpha and theta subunits of the Pol III core. The DnaQ991 protein, consisting of the N-terminal 186 amino acids, was defective in binding to the alpha subunit while retaining normal binding to the theta subunit. In contrast, the NDelta186 protein, consisting of the C-terminal 57 amino acids, exhibited normal binding to the alpha subunit but was defective in binding to the theta subunit. A strain carrying the dnaQ991 allele exhibited a strong, recessive mutator phenotype, as expected from a defective alpha binding mutant. The data are consistent with the existence of two functional domains in epsilon, with the C-terminal domain responsible for polymerase binding. (+info)
Isolation and identification of the third subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase delta by PCNA-affinity chromatography of mouse FM3A cell extracts.
Using proliferating cell nuclear antigen affinity chroma-tography and glycerol gradient centrifugation of partially purified fractions from mouse FM3A cells we have been able to isolate novel complexes of DNA polymerase delta and DNA ligase 1 containing clearly defined subunit compositions. In addition to the well known catalytic subunit of 125 kDa and accessory subunit of 48 kDa, the DNA polymerase delta complex contained three supplementary components, one of which reacted with antibodies directed against the p40 and p37 subunits of RF-C. Of the two remaining components, one termed p66 turned out to be coded by a gene whose putative C-terminal domain displayed significant homology with that of the Cdc27 subunit of Schizosaccharomyces pombe polymerase delta. On the basis of these and other observations, we propose p66 to be the missing third subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase delta. The DNA ligase 1 complex was made up of three novel components in addition to the 125 kDa catalytic subunit, two of which, p48 and p66, were common to DNA polymerase delta. We discuss the implications of our findings within the current framework of our understanding of DNA replication. (+info)
Genetic factors affecting the impact of DNA polymerase delta proofreading activity on mutation avoidance in yeast.
Base selectivity, proofreading, and postreplication mismatch repair are important for replication fidelity. Because proofreading plays an important role in error correction, we have investigated factors that influence its impact in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have utilized a sensitive mutation detection system based on homonucleotide runs of 4 to 14 bases to examine the impact of DNA polymerase delta proofreading on mutation avoidance. The contribution of DNA polymerase delta proofreading on error avoidance was found to be similar to that of DNA polymerase epsilon proofreading in short homonucleotide runs (A4 and A5) but much greater than the contribution of DNA polymerase epsilon proofreading in longer runs. We have identified an intraprotein interaction affecting mutation prevention that results from mutations in the replication and the proofreading regions, resulting in an antimutator phenotype relative to a proofreading defect. Finally, a diploid strain with a defect in DNA polymerase delta proofreading exhibits a higher mutation rate than a haploid strain. We suggest that in the diploid population of proofreading defective cells there exists a transiently hypermutable fraction that would be inviable if cells were haploids. (+info)