Proposal to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus, Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 to Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov.
The 16S rRNA gene sequences of Halococcus saccharolyticus and Halococcus salifodinae were closely related (94.5-94.7% similarity) to that of Halococcus morrhuae, the type species of the genus Halococcus. However, Halococcus turkmenicus was distinct from the other members of this genus, with low 16S rRNA similarities when compared to Halococcus morrhuae (88.7%). On the basis of phylogenetic tree reconstruction, detection of signature bases and DNA-DNA hybridization data, it is proposed to transfer Halococcus turkmenicus to a novel genus, Haloterrigena, as Haloterrigena turkmenica gen. nov., comb. nov., and to accommodate Halobacterium trapanicum JCM 9743 and strain GSL-11 in the same species. On the basis of morphological, cultural and 16S rRNA sequence data, it is also proposed that the culture collection strains of Halobacterium trapanicum NCIMB 767, ATCC 43102 and JCM 8979 should be renamed as Halococcus sp. (+info)
An Lrp-like protein of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus which binds to its own promoter.
Regulation of gene expression in the domain Archaea, and specifically hyperthermophiles, has been poorly investigated so far. Biochemical experiments and genome sequencing have shown that, despite the prokaryotic cell and genome organization, basal transcriptional elements of members of the domain Archaea (i.e., TATA box-like sequences, RNA polymerase, and transcription factors TBP, TFIIB, and TFIIS) are of the eukaryotic type. However, open reading frames potentially coding for bacterium-type transcription regulation factors have been recognized in different archaeal strains. This finding raises the question of how bacterial and eukaryotic elements interact in regulating gene expression in Archaea. We have identified a gene coding for a bacterium-type transcription factor in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. The protein, named Lrs14, contains a potential helix-turn-helix motif and is related to the Lrp-AsnC family of regulators of gene expression in the class Bacteria. We show that Lrs14, expressed in Escherichia coli, is a highly thermostable DNA-binding protein. Bandshift and DNase I footprint analyses show that Lrs14 specifically binds to multiple sequences in its own promoter and that the region of binding overlaps the TATA box, suggesting that, like the E. coli Lrp, Lrs14 is autoregulated. We also show that the lrs14 transcript is accumulated in the late growth stages of S. solfataricus. (+info)
Expression of the Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum hpt gene, encoding hypoxanthine (Guanine) phosphoribosyltransferase, in Escherichia coli.
The hpt gene from the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, encoding hypoxanthine (guanine) phosphoribosyltransferase, was cloned by functional complementation into Escherichia coli. The hpt-encoded amino acid sequence is most similar to adenine phosphoribosyltransferases, but the encoded enzyme has activity only with hypoxanthine and guanine. The synthesis of the recombinant enzyme is apparently limited by the presence of the rare arginine codons AGA and AGG and the rare isoleucine AUA codon on the hpt gene. The recombinant enzyme was purified to apparent homogeneity. (+info)
Following the discovery of the bacteriorhodopsin proton pump in Halobacterium halobium (salinarum), not only the halorhodopsin halide pump and two photosensor rhodopsins (sensory rhodopsin and phoborhodopsin) in the same species, but also homologs of these four rhodopsins in strains of other genera of Halobacteriaceae have been reported. Twenty-eight full (and partial) sequences of the genomic DNA of these rhodopsins have been analyzed. The deduced amino acid sequences have led to new strategies and tactics for understanding bacterial rhodopsins on a comparative basis, as summarized briefly in this article. The data discussed include (i) alignment of the sequences to qualify/characterize the conserved residues; (ii) assignment of residues that cause differences in function(s)/properties; and (iii) phylogeny of the halobacterial rhodopsins to suggest their evolutionary paths. The four kinds of rhodopsin in each strain are assumed, on the basis of their genera-specific distributions, to have arisen by at least two gene-duplication processes during evolution prior to generic speciation. The first duplication of the rhodopsin ancestor gene yielded two genes, each of which was duplicated again to give four genes in the ancestor halobacterium. The bacterium carrying four rhodopsin genes, after accumulating mutations, became ready for generic speciation and the delivery of four rhodopsins to each species. The original rhodopsin ancestor is speculated to be closest to the proton pump (bacteriorhodopsin). (+info)
Isolation and characterization of a second subunit of molecular chaperonin from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1: analysis of an ATPase-deficient mutant enzyme.
The cpkA gene encoding a second (alpha) subunit of archaeal chaperonin from Pyrococcus kodakaraensis KOD1 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant CpkA was studied for chaperonin functions in comparison with CpkB (beta subunit). The effect on decreasing the insoluble form of proteins was examined by coexpressing CpkA or CpkB with CobQ (cobyric acid synthase from P. kodakaraensis) in E. coli. The results indicate that both CpkA and CpkB effectively decrease the amount of the insoluble form of CobQ. Both CpkA and CpkB possessed the same ATPase activity as other bacterial and eukaryal chaperonins. The ATPase-deficient mutant proteins CpkA-D95K and CpkB-D95K were constructed by changing conserved Asp95 to Lys. Effect of the mutation on the ATPase activity and CobQ solubilization was examined. Neither mutant exhibited ATPase activity in vitro. Nevertheless, they decreased the amount of the insoluble form of CobQ by coexpression as did wild-type CpkA and CpkB. These results implied that both CpkA and CpkB could assist protein folding for nascent protein in E. coli without requiring energy from ATP hydrolysis. (+info)
10-11 bp periodicities in complete genomes reflect protein structure and DNA folding.
MOTIVATION: Completely sequenced genomes allow for detection and analysis of the relatively weak periodicities of 10-11 basepairs (bp). Two sources contribute to such signals: correlations in the corresponding protein sequences due to the amphipatic character of alpha-helices and the folding of DNA (nucleosomal patterns, DNA supercoiling). Since the topological state of genomic DNA is of importance for its replication, recombination and transcription, there is an immediate interest to obtain information about the supercoiled state from sequence periodicities. RESULTS: We show that correlations within proteins affect mainly the oscillations at distances below 35 bp. The long-ranging correlations up to 100 bp reflect primarily DNA folding. For the yeast genome these oscillations are consistent in detail with the chromatin structure. For eubacteria and archaea the periods deviate significantly from the 10.55 bp value for free DNA. These deviations suggest that while a period of 11 bp in bacteria reflects negative supercoiling, the significantly different period of thermophilic archaea close to 10 bp corresponds to positive supercoiling of thermophilic archaeal genomes. AVAILABILITY: Protein sets and C programs for the calculation of correlation functions are available on request from the authors (see http://itb.biologie.hu-berlin.de). (+info)
Thermococcus barophilus sp. nov., a new barophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeon isolated under high hydrostatic pressure from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent.
A novel barophilic, hyperthermophilic, anaerobic sulfur-metabolizing archaeon, strain MPT (T = type strain), was isolated from a hydrothermal vent site (Snakepit) on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (depth, 3550 m). Enrichments and isolation were done under 40 MPa hydrostatic pressure at 95 degrees C. Strain MPT was barophilic at 75, 80, 85, 90, 95 and 98 degrees C, and was an obligate barophile between 95 and 100 degrees C (Tmax). For growth above 95 degrees C, a pressure of 15.0-17.5 MPa was required. The strain grew at 48-95 degrees C under atmospheric pressure. The optimal temperature for growth was 85 degrees C at both high (40 MPa) and low (0.3 MPa) pressures. The growth rate was twofold higher at 85 degrees C under in situ hydrostatic pressure compared to at low pressure. Strain MPT cells were motile, coccoid, 0.8-2.0 microns in diameter and covered by a hexagonal S-layer lattice. The optimum pH and NaCl concentration for growth at low pressure were 7.0 and 20-30 g l-1, respectively. The new isolate was an obligate heterotroph and utilized yeast extract, beef extract and peptone for growth. Growth was optimal in the presence of elemental sulfur. Rifampicin and chloramphenicol inhibited growth. The core lipids consisted of a major archaeol and a complex lipid pattern consisting of a major phospholipid. The DNA G + C content was 37.1 mol%. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that strain MPT belonged to the genus Thermococcus and it is proposed that this isolate should be designated as a new species, Thermococcus barophilus. (+info)
Methanococcus vulcanius sp. nov., a novel hyperthermophilic methanogen isolated from East Pacific Rise, and identification of Methanococcus sp. DSM 4213T as Methanococcus fervens sp. nov.
An autotrophic, hyperthermophilic methanogen (M7T) was isolated from a deep-sea hydrothermal chimney sample collected on the East Pacific Rise at a depth of 2600 m. The coccoid-shaped cells are flagellated and exhibit a slight tumbling motility. The temperature range for growth at pH 6.5 was 49-89 degrees C, with optimum growth at 80 degrees C. The optimum pH for growth was 6.5, and the optimum NaCl concentration for growth was around 25 g l-1. The new isolate used H2 and CO2 as the only substrates for growth and methane production. Tungsten, selenium and yeast extract stimulated growth significantly. In the presence of CO2 and H2, the organism reduced elemental sulphur to hydrogen sulphide. Growth was inhibited by chloramphenicol and rifampicin, but not by ampicillin, kanamycin, penicillin and streptomycin. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 31 mol%. As determined by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis, this organism was closely related to Methanococcus jannaschii strain JAL-1T. However, despite the high percentage of similarity between their 16S rDNA sequences (97.1%), the DNA-DNA hybridization levels between these strains were less than 5%. On the basis of these observations and physiological traits, it is proposed that this organism should be placed in a new species, Methanococcus vulcanius. The type strain is M7T (= DSM 12094T). During the course of this study, the 16S rDNA sequence analysis placed Methanococcus sp. strain AG86T (= DSM 4213T) as a close relative of M. jannaschii strain JAL-1T. However, the weak level of DNA-DNA hybridization with this strain (< 10%) allowed the proposal that strain AG86T also constitutes a new species, Methanococcus fervens. (+info)