(1/35) Effects of a lipoxygenase inhibitor, panaxynol, on vascular contraction induced by angiotensin II.
We investigated whether a lipoxygenase inhibitor, panaxynol, affected the vascular contraction induced by angiotensin (Ang) II and the mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Panaxynol suppressed dose-dependently the contractile responses induced by 30 nM Ang II in isolated intact and endothelial cell-denuded aorta in the hamster. IC50 values in the intact and endothelial cell-denuded aorta were 23 and 20 microM, respectively. In SHR, the mean arterial pressure after injection of 30 and 60 mg/kg panaxynol was reduced, and the maximum hypotensive values were 23 and 48 mmHg, respectively. Thus, lipoxygenase products may affect the renin-angiotensin system. (+info)
(2/35) Cerebral microvascular endothelial cell tube formation: role of astrocytic epoxyeicosatrienoic acid release.
Cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (CMVEC) form tubes when cocultured with astrocytes (AS). Therefore, it appears that AS may be important in mediating angiogenesis in the brain. We hypothesized that AS modulate CMVEC tube formation by releasing a soluble factor. Thymidine incorporation in cultured CMVEC increased 305% when incubated with 50% conditioned AS medium for 24 h [control: 52,755 +/- 4,838 counts per minute (cpm) per well, conditioned 161,082 +/- 12,099 cpm/well, n = 8]. Because our laboratory has previously shown that AS can produce epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are known mitogens, we investigated whether release of EETs by AS is responsible for tube formation in the CMVEC-AS coculture. AS were seeded on Lab-Tek slides, CMVEC were seeded on the AS the next day, and cultures were allowed to progress for another 5 days with and without cytochrome P-450 epoxygenase blockade by 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA). Tube formation in cocultures receiving 17-ODYA was significantly inhibited compared with control (93.8%). These data suggest that tube formation requires the release of EETs by AS. (+info)
(3/35) Chemical constituents from the colombian medicinal plant Niphogeton ternata.
Two coumarins and one polyacetylene, 5-0-(3-chloro-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-8-methoxypsoralen (1), 2',3'-dihydro-jatamansin (2), and 10-chloro-1-heptadecene-4,6-diyne-3,8,9-triol (3), along with 15 known compounds (4-18), were isolated from the methanol extract of Niphogeton ternata. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy. (+info)
(4/35) Synthesis of panax acetylenes: chiral syntheses of acetylpanaxydol, PQ-3 and panaxydiol.
Acetylpanaxydol (1-Ac), PQ-3 (2) and panaxydiol (3) and their optical isomers were synthesized from L-(+)-diethyl tartrate. The absolute configurations of 1-Ac, 2 and 3 were determined to be 1-Ac (3R,9R,10S), 2 (9R,10S) and 3 (3R,10S), respectively, by comparisons of their optical rotations and the NMR data of their MTPA esters with those of natural products. (+info)
(5/35) Effects of the polyacetylene capillin on human tumour cell lines.
We investigated the effects of capillin, a constituent of Artemisia monosperma, on four human tumour cell lines: colon carcinoma H729, pancreatic carcinoma MIA PaCa-2, epidermoid carcinoma of the larynx HEp-2 and lung carcinoma A549. Cells were treated with capillin to examine both the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects, as well as the molecular mechanism underlying these effects. Changes in cell proliferation, membrane permeability, macromolecular synthesis, glutathione (GSH), cell cycle and programmed cell death were evaluated. Capillin (1microM-10microM) inhibited cell proliferation and decreased macromolecular synthesis simultaneously, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Co-incubation with L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO) augmented the efficacy of capillin. Capillin modulated GSH levels, accumulated cells in the S+G2/M-phase of the cell cycle and induced cell death and DNA fragmentation, as indicated by flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and DNA fragmentation assay. These findings suggest that capillin has cytotoxic activity and can induce apoptosis in human tumour cell lines. (+info)
(6/35) A small molecule Smac mimic potentiates TRAIL- and TNFalpha-mediated cell death.
We describe the synthesis and properties of a small molecule mimic of Smac, a pro-apoptotic protein that functions by relieving inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (IAP)-mediated suppression of caspase activity. The compound binds to X chromosome- encoded IAP (XIAP), cellular IAP 1 (cIAP-1), and cellular IAP 2 (cIAP-2) and synergizes with both tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) to potently induce caspase activation and apoptosis in human cancer cells. The molecule has allowed a temporal, unbiased evaluation of the roles that IAP proteins play during signaling from TRAIL and TNF receptors. The compound is also a lead structure for the development of IAP antagonists potentially useful as therapy for cancer and inflammatory diseases. (+info)
(7/35) Falcarindiol impairs the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by abrogating the activation of IKK and JAK in rat primary astrocytes.
The effects of falcarindiol on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induced by lipopolysaccharide/interferon-gamma (LPS/IFN-gamma) in rat primary astrocytes were investigated. The molecular mechanisms underlying falcarindiol that confers its effect on iNOS expression were also elucidated. Falcarindiol abrogated the LPS/IFN-gamma-mediated induction of iNOS by about 80%. Falcarindiol attenuated the induction of iNOS in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of falcarindiol on iNOS induction was attributable to decrease in the protein content and the mRNA level of iNOS. Treatment with 50 microM of falcarindiol for 30 min decreased LPS/IFN-gamma-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation by 32%. Treatment with 50 microM of falcarindiol for 60 min diminished the LPS/IFN-gamma-mediated activation of IkappaB kinase-alpha (IKK-alpha) and IKK-beta by 28.2 and 29.7%, respectively. Falcarindiol modulated the nuclear translocation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (Stat1) in a time-dependent manner. Falcarindiol (50 microM) decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of janus kinase 1 (JAK1) by 84.8% at 5 min. Falcarindiol also abrogated the tyrosine phoshorylation of JAK2 by 82.3% at 10 min.The present study demonstrates that falcarindiol attenuated the activation of IKK and JAK contributing to the blockade of activation of NF-kappaB and Stat1, thereby leading to the suppression of iNOS expression. (+info)
(8/35) Electrolyte effects on bilayer tubule formation by a diacetylenic phospholipid.
A general effect by dissolved electrolytes to destabilize the curvature of bilayer tubules prepared from the diacetylenic phospholipid, 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine is not found. This observation discounts the role of an electrostatic interaction between polarization charges on the edges of a ferroelectric bilayer as a means by which the cylindrical curvature may be stabilized in these structures (de Gennes, P. G. 1987. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris. 304:259-263). The solution-mediated ionic interactions of electrolytes with this phospholipid appear not to influence significantly the relative stability of the crystalline state of the tubule, but at high levels of a few salts, may affect the nucleation and growth of the crystalline bilayer. Curvature of the bilayer in these tubular structures apparently derives from an interaction that is not very sensitive to the presence of electrolytes. Cylindrical curvature may alternatively arise from a bending force within the bilayer that is intrinsic to the anisotropic packing of the lipid molecules (Helfrich, W., and J. Prost. 1988. Phys. Rev. A38:3065-3068; Chappell, J. S., and P. Yager. 1991. Chem. Phys. Lipids. In press), and may therefore be largely determined by the packing interactions within the hydrophobic region of the tubular bilayer. (+info)