Pulsed-light inactivation of food-related microorganisms.
The effects of high-intensity pulsed-light emissions of high or low UV content on the survival of predetermined populations of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. Bacterial cultures were seeded separately on the surface of tryptone soya-yeast extract agar and were reduced by up to 2 or 6 log10 orders with 200 light pulses (pulse duration, approximately 100 ns) of low or high UV content, respectively (P < 0.001). (+info)
Disinfection of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopy equipment: an evaluation of a cetrimide chlorhexidine solution and glutaraldehyde.
There is little information available on the bacteriological contamination of upper gastrointestinal fibreoptic endoscopes during routine use and the effects of 'disinfecting solutions'. A bacteriological evaluation was therefore made of cleaning an endoscope and its ancillary equipment with (1) water, (2) an aqueous solution of 1% cetrimide with 0.1% chlorhexidine, and (3) activated aqueous 2% glutaraldehyde. All equipment, but particularly the endoscope itself, was found to be heavily contaminated after use with a wide variety of organisms of which 53% were Gram positive. Cleaning the endoscope and ancillary equipment with water and the cetrimide/chlorhexidine solution alone or in combination was inadequate to produce disinfection but immersion in glutaraldehyde for two minutes consistently produced sterile cultures with our sampling technique. A rapid and simple method for disinfection of endoscopic equipment is therefore recommended and we think this is especially suitable for busy endoscopy units. (+info)
A test for 'hygienic' hand disinfection.
A standardised test procedure is described in which finger-tips are inoculated with broth cultures of organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphyloccocus saprophyticus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa): counts are made from washings of hands after disinfection with various antiseptic-detergents, alcoholic solutions, or unmedicated soap. 70% alcohol, with or without chlorhexidine, was the most effective preparation. The two antiseptic detergents showed variable results, but against Gram-negative bacilli neither was significantly more effective than plain soap. Some tests were also made on the death rate of organisms dried on the skin without disinfection. (+info)
Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.
There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in standard rodent models; transgenic mouse models and small fish models; in vitro mechanistic and toxicokinetic studies; and reproductive, immunotoxicity, and developmental studies. The goal is to create a toxicity database that reflects a wide range of DBPs resulting from different disinfection practices. This paper describes the approach developed by these agencies to provide the information needed to make scientifically based regulatory decisions. (+info)
Chlorine inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7.
We analyzed isolates of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (which has recently caused waterborne outbreaks) and wild-type E. coli to determine their sensitivity to chlorination. Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains were significantly reduced within 1 minute of exposure to free chlorine. Results indicate that chlorine levels typically maintained in water systems are sufficient to inactivate these organisms. (+info)
Response of pathogenic Vibrio species to high hydrostatic pressure.
Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802, Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 27562, Vibrio cholerae O:1 ATCC 14035, Vibrio cholerae non-O:1 ATCC 14547, Vibrio hollisae ATCC 33564, and Vibrio mimicus ATCC 33653 were treated with 200 to 300 MPa for 5 to 15 min at 25 degrees C. High hydrostatic pressure inactivated all strains of pathogenic Vibrio without triggering a viable but nonculturable (VBNC) state; however, cells already existing in a VBNC state appeared to possess greater pressure resistance. (+info)
Bronchoscopy-related infections and pseudoinfections--New York, 1996 and 1998.
Bronchoscopy is a useful diagnostic technique that can be performed safely by trained specialists when the bronchoscopes in both inpatient and ambulatory-care settings are reprocessed properly to prevent transmission of infection. The New York State Department of Health received reports of three clusters of culture-positive bronchoscopy specimens obtained in 1996 and 1998 from patients at local health-care facilities. This report summarizes the results of investigations of these clusters, which indicated involvement of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. intracellulare, or imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Between patient uses, bronchoscopes had been cleaned, visually inspected, leak tested, and processed by STERIS System 1 processors (STERIS, Mentor, Ohio). (+info)
Evaluation of disinfection and sterilization of reusable angioscopes with the duck hepatitis B model.
PURPOSE: Nosocomial transmission of viral hepatitis and retrovirus infection has been reported. The expected risk is greatest for the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The duck HBV (DHBV) has similar biologic and structural characteristics to HBV and has been adopted as a suitable model for disinfectant testing. METHODS: Angioscopic examination of the external jugular vein was performed on DHBV-infected ducks. After use, the instrument was air dried for 3 minutes. Samples were obtained by flushing the channel with 5 mL of phosphate buffered saline solution. The samples were collected immediately after drying (control), after flushing with 5 mL of water, after glutaraldehyde disinfection for 5, 10, and 20 minutes, and after ethylene oxide gas sterilization. Angioscopes were either precleaned or uncleaned before disinfection/sterilization. Residual infectivity was assessed with inoculation of samples into the peritoneal cavity of day-old ducks (n = 231). RESULTS: DNA analysis results of liver samples showed that all 38 control ducks became infected. The frequency of DHBV infection was reduced to 93% (14 of 15) by flushing the angioscope with 5 mL of sterile water. No transmission occurred after the use of any of the properly precleaned and disinfected/sterilized angioscopes. However, after the use of the uncleaned angioscopes, the transmission rate was 90% (9 of 10) and 70% (7 of 10) after 5 and 10 minutes of contact time, respectively, in 2% glutaraldehyde. Even after the recommended 20 minutes of contact time, there was still 6% (2 of 35) transmission. After ethylene oxide sterilization, two of the recipient ducklings (2 of 35) were infected with DHBV. CONCLUSION: There was no disease transmission after reuse of disposable angioscopes adequately cleaned before disinfection or sterilization. However, if the angioscopes are inadequately cleaned, DHBV can survive despite glutaraldehyde disinfection or ethylene oxide sterilization. This contrasts with previous in vitro and in vivo data with solid surgical instruments. It is postulated that the presence of a narrow lumen or residual protein shielding within the lumen may compromise effective inactivation of hepadnaviruses on angioscopes, with the potential risk for patient-to-patient transmission. (+info)