Evidence of improving survival of patients with rectal cancer in france: a population based study.
BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years there have been many changes in the management of rectal cancer. Their impact on the overall population is not well known. AIMS: To determine trends in management and prognosis of rectal cancer in two French regions. SUBJECTS: 1978 patients with a rectal carcinoma diagnosed between 1978 and 1993. METHODS: Time trends in treatment, stage at diagnosis, operative mortality, and survival were studied on a four year basis. A non-conditional logistic regression was performed to obtain an odds ratio for each period adjusted for the other variables. To estimate the independent effect of the period a multivariate relative survival analysis was performed. RESULTS: Over the 16 year period resection rates increased from 66.0% to 80.1%; the increase was particularly noticeable for sphincter saving procedures (+30.6% per four years, p=0.03). The percentage of patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy increased from 24.0% to 40.0% (p=0.02). The proportion of patients with Dukes' type A cancer increased from 17. 7% to 30.6% with a corresponding decrease in those with more advanced disease. Operative mortality decreased by 31.1% per four years (p=0.03). All these improvements have resulted in a dramatic increase in relative survival (from 35.4% for the 1978-1981 period to 57.0% for the 1985-1989 period). CONCLUSIONS: Substantial advances in the management of rectal cancer have been achieved, but there is evidence that further improvements can be made in order to increase survival. (+info)
Development of a heart failure center: a medical center and cardiology practice join forces to improve care and reduce costs .
Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a rapidly growing and expensive cardiovascular disorder. Conventional care for CHF is ineffective and results in a cycle of "crisis management" that includes repeated emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and physician visits. Recently, a number of outpatient coronary care centers that provide consistent, aggressive outpatient therapies and extensive patient education have emerged and are successfully breaking this cycle of dependence on hospital services. One such effort is the Heart Institute's Heart Failure Center, the result of a partnership between a private-practice cardiology group and our tertiary-care medical center. Our program includes not only patient education and outpatient infusions of inotropic agents, but an electronic linkage to the emergency department and home healthcare services. Preliminary data show that 16 months after the program was initiated, hospital admissions decreased by 30%, hospital days by 42% and average length of stay by 17%. An effective outpatient heart failure program can alleviate the economic burden of CHF and improve the quality of patient care. (+info)
Resource utilization and work or school loss reported by patients with diabetes: experience in diabetes training programs.
Diabetes exerts a major economic impact on healthcare in the United States both in terms of direct and indirect costs. Diabetes management and education programs designed to assist patients in achieving more optimal glycemic control represent a potential mechanism for reducing the morbidity and costs associated with diabetes. The relationship between HbA1c and patient hospitalizations and between HbA1c and days lost from work or school related to diabetes within the past year were evaluated. A cohort of 2359 patients with diabetes (188 type I, 2171 type II) referred to a comprehensive diabetes self-management training program was included in the analyses. Overall, 350 (14.8%) patients reported hospitalization, and 212 (9.0%) reported days lost from work or school. Patients with type I diabetes reported more hospitalizations (26.1% vs 13.9% and days lost (19.2% vs 8.1%) than type II patients. For the hospitalization outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that younger age, the number of co-morbidities, and the duration of diabetes exerted a greater influence on the reported numbers of hospitalization than glycemic control. For the days lost outcome, the multivariate analyses indicated that there was a marginally significant association between patients with poor glycemic control and reported work or school loss related to diabetes (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-2.2). These data suggest that interventions that improve glycemic control may decrease indirect costs related to diabetes. (+info)
Diagnosis and treatment of chronic renal failure in children.
This activity is designed for primary care and specialist physicians. GOAL: To provide an overview of the unique features and treatment of chronic renal failure in children. OBJECTIVES: 1. Describe the diagnosis of chronic renal failure in children. 2. Discuss the medical treatment of chronic renal failure in children. 3. Understand the treatment of end-stage renal disease in children. 4. Discuss the financial impact of caring for a child with chronic renal failure. (+info)
Patient health management: a promising paradigm in Canadian healthcare.
Disease management, or the focused application of resources to achieve desired health outcomes, began in Canada in 1971 with the introduction of a universal healthcare program and a single government payor. Although relatively unfocused and nonrestrictive by contemporary standards, this program was successful in terms of outcomes. However, it is expensive, and Canada's rapidly aging population is fueling a growing demand for more efficacious medical therapies. As a result, isolated services are being restricted in an effort to reduce costs. As a result of these changes and low prescription and patient compliance rates for efficacious therapies, total system costs have risen, there is a growing concern about deterioration of health outcomes, and stakeholders are dissatisfied. To optimize healthcare outcomes and reduce costs, a new paradigm--patient health management (PHM)--has emerged. With PHM, clinical and cost outcomes are continually measured and communicated to providers in an attempt to promote more efficacious care. PHM also seeks to avoid restrictive practices that are now associated with detrimental health outcomes and increased costs. PHM has proved successful when applied to acute and chronic cardiac disease treatment. It remains untested for most other diseases, but available data suggest that the comprehensive, evidence-based disease and systems management that characterizes PHM is likely to achieve the best health outcomes for the most people at the lowest possible costs. (+info)
Clinical improvement with bottom-line impact: custom care planning for patients with acute and chronic illnesses in a managed care setting.
A fully capitated, integrated healthcare delivery system endeavored to improve the care of its sickest members. A computer algorithm severity index that encompassed a 1-year history of hospitalization and adjusted for inclusion of a variety of chronic conditions was calculated on the basis of clinical and administrative claims databases for the entire membership of the healthcare system. Monthly updated lists were produced to find patients with acute and chronic illnesses. These patients accounted for one-fourth of hospital admissions and almost half of inpatient days, but they numbered less than 1% of system membership. Each listed person, regardless of age or diagnosis, had a custom care plan formulated by nurses in consultation with the primary care physician and involved specialists. Plan development featured in-home assessments in most instances and incorporated a variety of ancillary services, telephone and home-care follow-up, and strategies to increase continuity and access to care. Patient-reported functional status was obtained at establishment of the care plan and periodically thereafter in expectation of raising the cross-sectional mean values of the population. Three months after initiation of the program, the expected winter hospitalization peak did not occur, and utilization tended to be lower in subsequent months. Inpatient admissions among members with acute and chronic illnesses decreased 20%, and inpatient days decreased 28% from baseline levels. Among the subset of seniors in the population, inpatient days decreased 37%. Net financial impact was a medical expenditure decrease of more than 5% from 1995 levels. On a population basis, functional status was raised, and the acuity of patients' conditions and need for inpatient hospital care were reduced. (+info)
Comparison of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide with oral loratadine in the treatment of seasonal ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis.
A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group controlled study compared the efficacy and safety of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide (220 micrograms/day) and oral loratadine (10 mg/day) in patients with at least two seasons of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. A 28-day screening period, including a 5-day baseline period, preceded a 4-week treatment period. Reduction in rhinitis symptom scores was evident in both groups as early as day 1, with no significant between-group differences during week 1. At weeks 2, 3, and 4, patients treated with triamcinolone acetonide were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, and sneezing than were patients treated with loratadine. At weeks 3 and 4, rhinorrhea and ocular symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved from baseline among triamcinolone acetonide patients compared with loratadine patients. There was no significant between-group difference in relief from postnasal drip at any time point. Physicians' global evaluations significantly (P = 0.002) favored triamcinolone acetonide at the final visit, with moderate to complete relief of symptoms attained by 68% of triamcinolone acetonide patients and 59% of loratadine patients. Over the 4-week treatment period, triamcinolone acetonide patients had significantly greater improvement in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, sneezing, and ocular symptoms. Both treatments were well tolerated, with headache being the most frequently reported drug-related adverse effect in both the triamcinolone acetonide (15%) and loratadine (11%) groups. These results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide is more effective than oral loratadine in relieving the symptoms of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. (+info)
Osteoporosis: review of guidelines and consensus statements.
This activity is designed for physicians, pharmacists, nurses, health planners, directors of managed care organizations, and payers of health services. GOAL: To understand current guidelines and consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. OBJECTIVE: List four national or international organizations involved in the development of consensus statements regarding the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of osteoporosis. 2. Discuss the significant differences among different countries regarding the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. 3. List the major risk factors for osteoporosis. 4. Describe the differences in the application of bone mineral density scans, biochemical markers, and ultrasound in evaluating patients with suspected osteopenia and osteoporosis. 5. Distinguish between and briefly discuss therapeutic modalities used in primary prevention, secondary prevention, and treatment of osteoporosis. 6. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of estrogen/hormone replacement therapy. 7. Describe alternatives to estrogen/hormone replacement therapy. (+info)