Crystal structure of an MHC class I presented glycopeptide that generates carbohydrate-specific CTL.
T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of nonpeptidic and modified peptide antigens has been recently uncovered but is still poorly understood. Immunization with an H-2Kb-restricted glycopeptide RGY8-6H-Gal2 generates a population of cytotoxic T cells that express both alpha/beta TCR, specific for glycopeptide, and gamma/delta TCR, specific for the disaccharide, even on glycolipids. The crystal structure of Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 now demonstrates that the peptide and H-2Kb structures are unaffected by the peptide glycosylation, but the central region of the putative TCR binding site is dominated by the extensive exposure of the tethered carbohydrate. These features of the Kb/RGY8-6H-Gal2 structure are consistent with the individual ligand binding preferences identified for the alpha/beta and gamma/delta TCRs and thus explain the generation of a carbohydrate-specific T cell response. (+info)
Distribution of chondroitin sulfate in cartilage proteoglycans under associative conditions.
Proteoglycan aggregates and proteoglycan subunits were extracted from bovine articular cartilage with guanidine-HC1 folowed by fractionation by equilibrium centrifugation in cesium chloride density gradients. The distribution of chondroitin sulfates (CS) in the cartilage proteoglycans was studied at the disaccharide level by digestion with chondroitinases. In the proteoglycan aggregate fraction, it was observed that the proportion of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS increased from the bottom to the top fractions, whereas that of 6-sulfated disaccharide units was in the reverse order. Thus, the ratio of 4-sulfated disaccharide units to 6-sulfated disaccharide units increased significantly with decreasing density. The proportion of non-sulfated disaccharide units to total CS tended to increase with increasing density. These data indicate a polydisperse distribution of CS chains, under the conditions used here, in proteoglycan aggregates from bovine articular cartilage. (+info)
Role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin.
The role of surface proteins in Vibrio cholerae attachment to chitin particles in vitro was studied. Treatment of V. cholerae O1 ATCC 14034 and ATCC 14035 with pronase E reduced the attachment of bacteria to chitin particles by 57 to 77%. A statistically significant reduction was also observed when the attachment to chitin was evaluated in the presence of homologous Sarkosyl-insoluble membrane proteins (MPs) (67 to 84%), N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) (62%), the sugar that makes up chitin, and wheat germ agglutinin (40 to 56%), a lectin that binds GlcNAc. The soluble oligomers N,N'-diacetylchitobiose or N,N', N"-triacetylchitotriose caused an inhibition of 14 to 23%. Sarkosyl-insoluble MPs able to bind chitin particles were isolated and visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; two of these peptides (molecular sizes, 36 and 53 kDa) specifically bind GlcNAc. (+info)
Identification of cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid in submitochondrial particles of bovine heart.
Submitochondrial particles of bovine heart were hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2 and the products were analyzed by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. We found a fatty acid with a molecular mass of 268 Da and a retention time longer than that of linoleic acid. Next, we synthesized organically cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, which has a molecular mass similar to that of the extracted fatty acid, and characterized its high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry profiles. Using these data we were able to identify endogenous cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid in rat and human heart and liver tissues that had been hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2. This fatty acid was not detected in tissue extracts that had not been hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2. Similar amounts of cis-9, 10-methylenehexadecanoic acid were measured in tissue extracts after total hydrolysis. These results suggest that cis-9, 10-methylenehexadecanoic acid is a fatty acid component, in the sn-2 position, of phospholipids in some mammalian tissue. (+info)
Determining anomericity of the glycosidic bond in Zn(II)-diethylenetriamine-disaccharide complexes using MSn in a quadrupole ion trap.
Zinc-diethylenetriamine (Zn-dien) N-glycoside complexes of four 1,4 and four 1,6 linked disaccharides are prepared. Each reaction mixture is ionized by electrospray and the resulting species [Zn(dien)(disaccharide)-H]+ is allowed to undergo collision-induced dissociation in a quadrupole ion trap. An MS3 analysis is used to differentiate alpha versus beta anomericity of the glycosidic bond in the disaccharide moiety. In addition, the MS2 and MS3 spectra can be used together to determine the linkage position of this glycosidic bond. (+info)
The role of the pseudo-disaccharide neamine as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of neomycin.
By using wild-type and deoxystreptamine-negative mutants of Streptomyces fradiae grown in media containing [6(-3)H]glucose or [U-14C]glucose, and by subsequent hydrolysis of the labelled neomycin produced, neamines labelled with 3H in both rings I and II, but with 14C in ring I only, were prepared. A mixture of these two forms of neamine was converted by deoxystreptamine-negative Streptomyces rimosus forma paromomycinus into neomycin (not paromomycin) with a 30% yield. The3H: 14C ratio in this neomycin was the same as the measured in neamine produced by hydrolysis of the neomycin, and in unused neamine reisolated from the incubation medium. The 3H:14C ratio in the neomycin was not affected by the presence of unlabelled deoxystreptamine during the incubation. The radioactivity in the neomycin was associated with rings I and II only. It is concluded that the added neamine is incorporated into antibiotic intact, without initial hydrolysis, and that the probable first step in the subunit assembly of neomycin is the formation of neamine. (+info)
Stimulation of collagen galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities by lysophosphatidylcholine.
Lysophosphatidylcholine stimulated the activities of collagen galactosyl- and glucosyl-transferases in chick-embryo extract and its particulate fractions in vitro, whereas essentially no stimulation was noted in the high-speed supernatant, where the enzymes are soluble and membrane-free. The stimulatory effect of lysophosphatidylcholine was masked by 0.1% Triton X-100. In kinetic experiments lysophosphatidylcholine raised the maximum velocities with respect to the substrates and co-substrates, whereas no changes were observed in the apparant Km values. Phospholipase A preincubation of the chick-embryo extract resulted in stimulation of both transferase activities, probably gy generating lysophosphatides from endogenous phospholipids. No stimulation by lysophosphatidylcholine was found when tested with 500-fold-purified glycosyltransferase. The results suggest that collagen glycosyltransferases must be associated with the membrane structures of the cell in order to be stimulated by lysophosphatidylcholine. Lysophosphatidylcholine could have some regulatory significance in vivo, since its concentration in the cell is comparable with that which produced marked stimulation in vitro. (+info)
Disaccharides as a new class of nonaccumulated osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti.
Sucrose and ectoine (1,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2-methyl-4-pyrimidine carboxylic acid) are very unusual osmoprotectants for Sinorhizobium meliloti because these compounds, unlike other bacterial osmoprotectants, do not accumulate as cytosolic osmolytes in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells. Here, we show that, in fact, sucrose and ectoine belong to a new family of nonaccumulated sinorhizobial osmoprotectants which also comprises the following six disaccharides: trehalose, maltose, cellobiose, gentiobiose, turanose, and palatinose. Also, several of these disaccharides were very effective exogenous osmoprotectants for strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovars phaseoli and trifolii. Sucrose and trehalose are synthesized as endogenous osmolytes in various bacteria, but the other five disaccharides had never been implicated before in osmoregulation in any organism. All of the disaccharides that acted as powerful osmoprotectants in S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum also acted as very effective competitors of [14C]sucrose uptake in salt-stressed cultures of these bacteria. Conversely, disaccharides that were not osmoprotective for S. meliloti and R. leguminosarum did not inhibit sucrose uptake in these bacteria. Hence, disaccharide osmoprotectants apparently shared the same uptake routes in these bacteria. Natural-abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantification of cytosolic solutes demonstrated that the novel disaccharide osmoprotectants were not accumulated to osmotically significant levels in salt-stressed S. meliloti cells; rather, these compounds, like sucrose and ectoine, were catabolized during early exponential growth, and contributed indirectly to enhance the cytosolic levels of two endogenously synthesized osmolytes, glutamate and the dipeptide N-acetylglutaminylglutamine amide. The ecological implication of the use of these disaccharides as osmoprotectants is discussed. (+info)