Ibandronate reduces osteolytic lesions but not tumor burden in a murine model of myeloma bone disease.
We determined the effects of the potent bisphosphonate ibandronate in a murine model of human myeloma bone disease. In this model, bone lesions typical of the human disease develop in mice following inoculation of myeloma cells via the tail vein. Treatment with ibandronate (4 micrograms per mouse per day) significantly reduced the occurrence of osteolytic bone lesions in myeloma-bearing mice. However, ibandronate did not prevent the mice from developing hindlimb paralysis and did not produce a detectable effect on survival. There was no significant effect of ibandronate on total myeloma cell burden, as assessed by morphometric measurements of myeloma cells in the bone marrow, liver, and spleen, or by measurement of serum IgG2b levels. These results support clinical findings that bisphosphonates may be useful for the treatment of myeloma-associated bone destruction, but suggest that other therapies are also required to reduce tumor growth. (+info)
Pamidronate reduces skeletal morbidity in women with advanced breast cancer and lytic bone lesions: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Protocol 18 Aredia Breast Cancer Study Group.
PURPOSE: To assess whether pamidronate can reduce the frequency of skeletal morbidity in women with lytic bone metastases from breast cancer treated with hormone therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Three hundred seventy-two women with breast cancer who had at least one lytic bone lesion and who were receiving hormonal therapy were randomized to receive 90 mg of pamidronate or placebo as a 2-hour intravenous infusion given in double-blind fashion every 4 weeks for 24 cycles. Patients were evaluated for skeletal complications: pathologic fractures, spinal cord compression, irradiation of or surgery on bone, or hypercalcemia. The skeletal morbidity rate (the ratio of the number of skeletal complications to the time on trial) was the primary efficacy variable. Bone pain, use of analgesics, quality of life, performance status, bone tumor response, and biochemical parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: One hundred eighty-two patients who received pamidronate and 189 who received placebo were assessable. The skeletal morbidity rate was significantly reduced at 12, 18, and 24 cycles in patients treated with 90 mg of pamidronate (P = .028, .023, and .008, respectively). At 24 cycles, the proportion of patients having had any skeletal complication was 56% in the pamidronate group and 67% in the placebo group (P = .027). The time to the first skeletal complication was longer for patients receiving pamidronate than for those given placebo (P = .049). There was no statistical difference in survival or in objective bone response rate. Pamidronate was well tolerated. CONCLUSION: Treatment with 90 mg of pamidronate as a 2-hour intravenous infusion every 4 weeks in addition to hormonal therapy significantly reduces skeletal morbidity from osteolytic metastases. (+info)
Thermodynamic studies on anion binding to apotransferrin and to recombinant transferrin N-lobe half molecules.
Equilibrium constants for the binding of anions to apotransferrin, to the recombinant N-lobe half transferrin molecule (Tf/2N), and to a series of mutants of Tf/2N have been determined by difference UV titrations of samples in 0.1 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C. The anions included in this study are phosphate, sulfate, bicarbonate, pyrophosphate, methylenediphosphonic acid, and ethylenediphosphonic acid. There are no significant differences between anion binding to Tf/2N and anion binding to the N-lobe of apotransferrin. The binding of simple anions like phosphate appears to be essentially equivalent for the two apotransferrin binding sites. The binding of pyrophosphate and the diphosphonates is inequivalent, and the studies on the recombinant Tf/2N show that the stronger binding is associated with the N-terminal site. Anion binding constants for phosphate, pyrophosphate, and the diphosphonates with the N-lobe mutants K206A, K296A, and R124A have been determined. Anion binding tends to be weakest for the K296A mutant, but the variation in log K values among the three mutants is surprisingly small. It appears that the side chains of K206, K296, and R124 all make comparable contributions to anion binding. There are significant variations in the intensities of the peaks in the difference UV spectra that are generated by the titrations of the mutant apoproteins with these anions. These differences appear to be related more to variations in the molar extinction coefficients of the anion-protein complexes rather than to differences in binding constants. (+info)
Treatment of multiple myeloma.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Multiple myeloma (MM) accounts for about 10% of all hematologic malignancies. The standard treatment with intermittent courses of melphalan and prednisone (MP) was introduced more than 30 years ago and, since then there has been little improvement in event-free and overall survival (EFS & OS). The aim of this article is to review: 1) the role of initial chemotherapy (ChT), maintenance treatment with alpha-interferon and salvage ChT, 2) the results of high-dose therapy (HDT) followed by allogeneic or autologous stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT and auto-SCT), and 3) the most important supportive measures. EVIDENCE AND INFORMATION SOURCES: The authors of this review have been actively working and contributing with original investigations on the treatment of MM during the last 15 years. In addition, the most relevant articles and recent abstracts published in journals covered by the Science Citation Index and Medline are also reviewed. STATE OF THE ART AND PERSPECTIVES: The importance of avoiding ChT in asymptomatic patients (smoldering MM) is emphasized. The criteria and patterns of response are reviewed. MP is still the standard initial ChT with a response rate of 50-60% and an OS of 2-3 years. Combination ChT usually increases the response rate but does not significantly influence survival when compared with MP. Exposure to melphalan should be avoided in patients in whom HDT followed by auto-SCT is planned, in order to not preclude the stem cell collection. The median response duration to initial ChT is 18 months. Interferon maintenance usually prolongs response duration but in most studies does not significantly influence survival (a large meta-analysis by the Myeloma Trialists' Collaborative Group in Oxford is being finished). In alkylating-resistant patients, the best rescue regimens are VBAD or VAD. In patients already resistant to VBAD or VAD and in those in whom these treatments are not feasible we recommend a conservative approach with alternate day prednisone and pulse cyclophosphamide. While HDT followed by autotransplantation is not recommended for patients with resistant relapse, patients with primary refractory disease seem to benefit from early myeloablative therapy. Although results from large randomized trials are still pending in order to establish whether early HDT intensification followed by auto-SCT is superior to continuing standard ChT in responding patients, the favorable experience with autotransplantation of the French Myeloma Intergroup supports this approach. However, although the complete response rate is higher with intensive therapy, the median duration of response is relatively short (median, 16 to 36 months), with no survival plateau. There are several ongoing trials comparing conventional ChT with HDT/autoSCT in order to identify the patients who are likely to benefit from one or another approach. With allo-SCT there is a transplant-related mortality ranging from 30 to 50% and also a high relapse rate in patients achieving CR. However, 10 to 20% of patients undergoing allo-SCT are long-term survivors (> 5 years) with no evidence of disease and, consequently, probably cured. The use of allogeneic peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) in order to speed the engraftment and also the use of partially T-cell depleted PBSC which can decrease the incidence of graft-versus-host disease are promising approaches. In the setting of allo-SCT, donor lymphocyte infusion is an encouraging strategy in order to treat or prevent relapses. Finally, important supportive measures such as the treatment of anemia with erythropoietin, the management of renal failure and the use of bisphosphonates are reviewed. (+info)
Inhibition of inflammatory actions of aminobisphosphonates by dichloromethylene bisphosphonate, a non-aminobisphosphonate.
1. When injected intraperitoneally into mice in doses larger than those used clinically, all the amino derivatives of bisphosphonates (aminoBPs) tested induce a variety of inflammatory reactions such as induction of histidine decarboxylase (HDC, the histamine-forming enzyme), hypertrophy of the spleen, atrophy of the thymus, hypoglycaemia, ascites and accumulation of exudate in the thorax, and an increase in the number of macrophages and/or granulocytes in the peritoneal cavity of blood. On the other hand, dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP) a typical non-aminoBP, has no such inflammatory actions. In the present study, we found that this agent can suppress the inflammatory actions of aminoBPs. 2. Cl2MBP, when injected into mice before or after injection of 4-amino-1-hydroxybutylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid (AHBuBP; a typical aminoBP), inhibited the induction of HDC activity by AHBuBP in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The increase in HDC activity induced by AHBuBP was largely suppressed by the injection of an equimolar dose of Cl2MBP. Cl2MBP also inhibited other AHBuBP-induced inflammatory reactions, as well as the inflammatory actions of two other aminoBPs. However, Cl2MBP did not inhibit the increase in HDC activity induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 3. We have previously reported that AHBuBP augments the elevation of HDC activity and the production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) that are induced by LPS. These actions of AHBuBP were also inhibited by Cl2MBP. 4. Based on these results and reported actions of bisphosphonates, the mechanisms underlying the contrasting effects of aminoBPs and Cl2MBP, a non-aminoBP are discussed. The results suggest that combined administration of Cl2MBP and an aminoBP in patients might be a useful way of suppressing the inflammatory side effects of aminoBPs. (+info)
Host modulation as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of periodontal disease.
Specific microorganisms initiate the immunoinflammatory processes that destroy tissue in periodontitis. Recent work has demonstrated, in addition to bacterial control, that modulation of the host immunoinflammatory response is also capable of controlling periodontitis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) destroy collagen and other matrix components, and the osteoclastic bone remodeling determines the periodontal bone response to a bacterial challenge. Other components of the biology, including cytokines and prostanoids, regulate MMPs and bone remodeling and are also involved in regulating the production of defensive elements, such as antibody. Agents directed at blocking MMPs or osteoclastic activity are effective in reducing periodontitis. Agents that inhibit prostaglandin E2 and selective blockage of specific cytokines have also been effective. Improved knowledge of bacterium-host interactions and of the processes leading to tissue destruction will help to identify targets for host modulation to reduce periodontitis in selected situations. (+info)
Phosphate depletion in the rat: effect of bisphosphonates and the calcemic response to PTH.
BACKGROUND: The removal of phosphate from the diet of the growing rat rapidly produces hypercalcemia, hypophosphatemia, hypercalciuria, and hypophosphaturia. Increased calcium efflux from bone has been shown to be the important cause of the hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria. It has been proposed that the increased calcium efflux from bone is osteoclast mediated. Because bisphosphonates have been shown to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, this study was performed to determine whether bisphosphonate-induced inhibition of osteoclast function changed the biochemical and bone effects induced by phosphate depletion. METHODS: Four groups of pair-fed rats were studied: (a) low-phosphate diet (LPD; phosphate less than 0.05%), (b) LPD plus the administration of the bisphosphonate Pamidronate (APD; LPD + APD), (c) normal diet (ND, 0.6% phosphate), and (d) ND + APD. All diets contained 0.6% calcium. A high dose of APD was administered subcutaneously (0.8 mg/kg) two days before the start of the study diet and on days 2, 6, and 9 during the 11 days of the study diet. On day 10, a 24-hour urine was collected, and on day 11, rats were either sacrificed or received an additional APD dose before a 48-hour parathyroid hormone (PTH) infusion (0.066 microgram/100 g/hr) via a subcutaneously implanted miniosmotic pump. RESULTS: Serum and urinary calcium were greater in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND and ND + APD groups [serum, 11.12 +/- 0.34 and 11.57 +/- 0.45 vs. 9.49 +/- 0.17 and 9.48 +/- 0.15 mg/dl (mean +/- SE), P < 0.05; and urine, 8.78 +/- 2.74 and 16.30 +/- 4.68 vs. 0.32 +/- 0.09 and 0.67 +/- 0.28 mg/24 hr, P < 0.05]. Serum PTH and serum and urinary phosphorus were less in the LPD and LPD + APD than in the ND and ND + APD groups (P < 0.05). The calcemic response to PTH was less (P < 0.05) in the LPD and LPD + APD groups than in the ND group and was less (P = 0.05) in the LPD + APD than in the ND + APD group. Bone histology showed that phosphate depletion increased the osteoblast and osteoclast surface, and treatment with APD reduced the osteoblast surface (LPD vs. LPD + APD, 38 +/- 4 vs. 4 +/- 2%, P < 0.05, and ND vs. ND + APD, 20 +/- 2 vs. 5 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and markedly altered osteoclast morphology by inducing cytoplasmic vacuoles. CONCLUSIONS: (a) Phosphate depletion induced hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria that were not reduced by APD administration. (b) The calcemic response to PTH was reduced in phosphate-depleted rats and was unaffected by APD administration in normal and phosphate-depleted rats, and (c) APD administration markedly changed bone histology without affecting the biochemical changes induced by phosphate depletion. (+info)
Serum galactosyl hydroxylysine as a biochemical marker of bone resorption.
BACKGROUND: Serum-based biochemical markers of bone resorption may provide better clinical information than urinary markers because direct comparison with serum markers of bone formation is possible and because the within-subject variability of serum markers may be lower. We describe a method for the measurement of free beta-1-galactosyl-O-hydroxylysine (Gal-Hyl) in serum. METHODS: The assay used preliminary ultrafiltration of serum, dansylation, and separation by reversed-phase HPLC with fluorescence detection. Healthy subjects were recruited from population-based studies of bone turnover. RESULTS: The within-run (n = 15) and between-run (n = 15) CVs were 7% and 14%, respectively, at a mean value of 48 nmol/L. In women and pubertal girls, serum free Gal-Hyl correlated with urine free Gal-Hyl (r = 0.84; P <0.001). Serum Gal-Hyl was higher during puberty and increased after menopause. The fractional renal clearance of free Gal-Hyl relative to that of creatinine was 0.90 (95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.98). Serum free Gal-Hyl decreased by 36% (SE = 4%) in 14 patients with mild Paget disease treated with an oral bisphosphonate, and this decrease was significantly (P <0. 001) greater than that seen for either serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (9%; SE = 4%) or serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (19%; SE = 8%). CONCLUSION: Serum free Gal-Hyl may be useful as a serum marker of bone resorption. (+info)