Cell surface membrane homeostasis and intracellular membrane traffic balance in mouse L929 cells.
We have developed a simple method for synchronizing L929 mouse fibroblasts. Cultured as monolayers, these cells stop growing at confluency and arrest at the end of the G1 phase. Upon seeding at low density, they enter the S phase simultaneously. Using these cells we then looked at the evolution of the surface membrane area during the cell cycle using the fluorescence membrane probe TMA-DPH. In contact with cells, this probe partitions between the membrane (probe fluorescent) and the external medium (non-fluorescent), delivering a signal proportional to the membrane area. This area was constant until just before mitosis, when it increased at once. With the same probe as an endocytic marker, we examined how this membrane homeostasis could be consistent with intracellular membrane trafficking. The study was limited to one selected period of the cell cycle (6-9 hours). We observed that 14% of the membrane endocytosed was not recycled, but was replaced at the cell surface by newly formed membrane from biosynthetic pathways. Brefeldin A modified the membrane traffic, but not the overall membrane homeostasis. The results are discussed in the framework of a maturation model. (+info)
Identification of syntenin as a protein of the apical early endocytic compartment in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells.
We used flow cytometry to sort and analyze apical and basolateral endocytic vesicles from filter-grown Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells after membrane internalization of the lipophilic fluorescent probe trimethylamino-diphenylhexatriene. Western blot analysis of sorted fractions showed enrichment of the early endosomal markers transferrin receptor and the small GTPase Rab5. Two-dimensional gel analysis indicated that the apical and basolateral early endosomes differed significantly in their protein composition. We found nine polypeptides to be specifically enriched in apical or basolateral endocytic vesicles. An apical protein identified by microsequencing was the adaptor molecule syntenin. This protein contains two PDZ domains (PSD-95, Dlg, and ZO-1 homology) that bind syndecan and ephrin-B2 cytoplasmic domains. In MDCK cells, transiently overexpressed Myc-tagged syntenin localized to both plasma membrane domains and to an intracellular vesicular compartment. Syntenin positive vesicles colocalized with internalized transferrin in the perinuclear region. In addition, syntenin colocalized in the apical supranuclear region with Rab5 and Rab11; the latter is a marker for the apical recycling endosomes in MDCK cells. (+info)
Modifications induced by LDL from type 1 diabetic patients on endothelial cells obtained from human umbilical vein.
The aim of the present work was to analyze the effect of LDL obtained from type 1 diabetic patients in good metabolic control on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) after a short incubation period to detect possible atherogenic modifications of endothelial properties. Cultured HUVECs were incubated for 3 h with culture medium alone (control HUVEC), with native LDL from 12 healthy men (control LDL), or with native LDL from 12 type 1 diabetic men (type 1 LDL) (100 pg/ml). After the incubation, the following parameters were evaluated: nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, Na+-K+-ATPase activity, plasma membrane fluidity determined by means of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1-(4-trimethylaminophenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH), and plasma membrane conjugated diene (CD) content. The same experiments were repeated after bradykinin stimulation or in the presence of the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and nitric oxide (NO) production in intact HUVECs was also evaluated. HUVECs incubated with control LDL in comparison with control HUVECs showed a decreased fluidity of the membrane surface evaluated by TMA-DPH and a higher CD content. These alterations were prevented by the presence of BHT. HUVECs incubated with type 1 LDL in comparison with both control HUVECs and cells incubated with control LDL showed 1) increased NOS and Na+-K+-ATPase activity, cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels, and CD content, and 2) decreased fluidity of the membrane surface evaluated by TMA-DPH. These modifications were blunted--but not abolished--by the presence of BHT. After bradykinin stimulation either in the absence or in the presence of BHT, both cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels and NO production were increased in control HUVECs and in HUVECs incubated with control LDL, while a reduced response was observed in HUVECs incubated with type 1 LDL. The alterations observed in the endothelial function after the cell-LDL interaction might play a central role in the atherogenic process in diabetes. (+info)
Cold shock in Bacillus subtilis: different effects of benzyl alcohol and ethanol on the membrane organisation and cell adaptation.
A temperature shift-down of Bacillus subtilis from 40 to 20 degrees C induces an 80 min growth lag. Benzyl alcohol reduced this period to 51 min, whereas ethanol prolonged it up to 102 min. The effect of the two alcohols on the membrane state was investigated by measuring the steady-state fluorescence anisotropy and analysing the lifetime distribution of diphenylhexatriene (DPH) and its polar derivative, TMA-DPH. As followed from the fluorescence anisotropy, the two alcohols exerted similar (fluidizing) effects on the cytoplasmic membranes of B. subtilis. However, benzyl alcohol significantly shortened the main DPH lifetime component and widened its distribution, while ethanol had no effect. The benzyl alcohol activity was interpreted in terms of an increased membrane hydration due to disordering of the membrane structure. Such an effect imitates the cold shock induced synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in B. subtilis. The fatty acid analysis revealed that ethanol hindered this adaptive synthesis of fatty acids. At the same time, its effect on the membrane state (membrane order) was very low and could not substitute the physiological response as was the case with benzyl alcohol. It can thus be concluded that the adaptation of the membrane physical state contributes significantly to the cold shock response of B. subtilis. (+info)
Biophysical and lipofection studies of DOTAP analogs.
In order to investigate the relationship between lipid structure and liposome-mediated gene transfer, we have studied biophysical parameters and transfection properties of monocationic DOTAP analogs, systematically modified in their non-polar hydrocarbon chains. Stability, size and (by means of anisotropy profiles) membrane fluidity of liposomes and lipoplexes were determined, and lipofection efficiency was tested in a luciferase reporter gene assay. DOTAP analogs were used as single components or combined with a helper lipid, either DOPE or cholesterol. Stability of liposomes was a precondition for formation of temporarily stable lipoplexes. Addition of DOPE or cholesterol improved liposome and lipoplex stability. Transfection efficiencies of lipoplexes based on pure DOTAP analogs could be correlated with stability data and membrane fluidity at transfection temperature. Inclusion of DOPE led to rather uniform transfection and anisotropy profiles, corresponding to lipoplex stability. Cholesterol-containing lipoplexes were generally stable, showing high transfection efficiency at low relative fluidity. Our results demonstrate that the efficiency of gene transfer mediated by monocationic lipids is greatly influenced by lipoplex biophysics due to lipid composition. The measurement of fluorescence anisotropy is an appropriate method to characterize membrane fluidity within a defined system of liposomes or lipoplexes and may be helpful to elucidate structure-activity relationships. (+info)
Interaction of oligonucleotides with cationic lipids: the relationship between electrostatics, hydration and state of aggregation.
Lipoplexes, which are spontaneously formed complexes between oligonucleotide (ODN) and cationic lipid, can be used to deliver ODNs into cells, both in vitro and in vivo. The present study was aimed at characterizing the interactions associated with the formation of lipoplexes, specifically in terms of electrostatics, hydration and particle size. Large unilamellar vesicles (approximately 100 nm diameter), composed of either DOTAP, DOTAP/cholesterol (mole ratio 1:1) or DOTAP/DOPE (mole ratio 1:1) were employed as a model of cationic liposomes. Neutral vesicles ( approximately 100 nm diameter), composed of DOPC/DOPE (mole ratio 1:1), were employed as control liposomes. After ODN addition to vesicles, at different mole ratios, changes in pH and electrical surface potential at the lipid-water interface were analyzed by using the fluorophore heptadecyl-7-hydroxycoumarin. In separate 'mirror image' experiments, liposomes were added at different mole ratios to fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled ODNs, thus yielding data about changes in the pH near the ODN molecules induced by the complexation with the cationic lipid. Particle size distribution and turbidity fluctuations were analyzed by the use of photon correlation spectroscopy and static light-scattering, respectively. In additional fluorescent probe studies, TMADPH was used to quantify membrane defects while laurdan was used to measure the level of hydration at the water-lipid interface. The results indicate that mutual neutralization of cationic lipids by ODNs and vice versa is a spontaneous reaction and that this neutralization is the main driving force for lipoplex generation. When lipid neutralization is partial, induced membrane defects cause the lipoplexes to exhibit increased size instability. (+info)
Surface-expressed lamellar body membrane is recycled to lamellar bodies.
Monoclonal antibody (MAb) 3C9, an antibody generated to the lamellar body of rat lung type II pneumocytes, specifically labels the luminal face of the lamellar body membrane. To follow the retrieval of lamellar body membrane from the cell surface in these cells, MAb 3C9 was instilled into rat lungs. In vivo, it was endocytosed by type II cells but not by other lung cells. In type II cells that were isolated from rat lungs by elastase digestion and cultured on plastic for 24 h, MAb 3C9 first bound to the cell surface, then was found in endosomes, vesicular structures, and multivesicular bodies and, finally, clustered on the luminal face of lamellar body membranes. The amount internalized reached a plateau after 1.5 h of incubation and was stimulated with the secretagogue ATP. In double-labeling experiments, internalized MAb 3C9 did not completely colocalize with NBD-PC liposomes or the nonspecific endocytic marker TMA-DPH, suggesting that lamellar body membrane is retrieved back to existing lamellar bodies by a pathway different from that of bulk membrane and may be one pathway for surfactant endocytosis. The lamellar body membrane components are retrieved as subunits that are redistributed among the preexisting lamellar bodies in the cell. (+info)
The role of chromophore in the lipid-protein interactions in bacteriorhodopsin-phosphatidylcholine vesicles.
By fluorescence and phase properties of a 1-acyl-2-[8-(2-anthroyl)-octanoyl]-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine probe, the influence of the chromophore on the phase transition of bacteriorhodopsin-lipid vesicles was investigated. It was observed that removal of the chromophore led to the down-shifting of the phase transition temperatures. The temperatures corresponding to the beginning and ending of the gel-liquid phase transition were also influenced. This demonstrated that the liquid phase is reached more easily when the chromophore is bleached. The results indicate that removal of the chromophore alters the protein-lipid interactions. It is suggested that this alteration might be related to the change in the lipid molecular packing. (+info)