Purification and characterization of gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869.
Two 3-hydroxybenzoate-inducible gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases were purified to homogeneity from Pseudomonas alcaligenes NCIB 9867 (P25X) and Pseudomonas putida NCIB 9869 (P35X), respectively. The estimated molecular mass of the purified P25X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 154 kDa, with a subunit mass of 39 kDa. Its structure is deduced to be a tetramer. The pI of this enzyme was established to be 4.8 to 5.0. The subunit mass of P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenase was 41 kDa, and this enzyme was deduced to exist as a dimer, with a native molecular mass of about 82 kDa. The pI of P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was around 4.6 to 4.8. Both of the gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases exhibited typical saturation kinetics and had apparent Kms of 92 and 143 microM for gentisate, respectively. Broad substrate specificities were exhibited towards alkyl and halogenated gentisate analogs. Both enzymes had similar kinetic turnover characteristics for gentisate, with kcat/Km values of 44.08 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P25X enzyme and 39.34 x 10(4) s-1 M-1 for the P35X enzyme. Higher kcat/Km values were expressed by both enzymes against the substituted gentisates. Significant differences were observed between the N-terminal sequences of the first 23 amino acid residues of the P25X and P35X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenases. The P25X gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase was stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, with the optimal pH around 8.0. The P35X enzyme showed a pH stability range between 7.0 and 9.0, and the optimum pH was also 8.0. The optimal temperature for both P25X and P35X gentisate 1, 2-dioxygenases was around 50 degrees C, but the P35X enzyme was more heat stable than that from P25X. Both enzymes were strongly stimulated by 0.1 mM Fe2+ but were completely inhibited by the presence of 5 mM Cu2+. Partial inhibition of both enzymes was also observed with 5 mM Mn2+, Zn2+, and EDTA. (+info)
Aspartate 205 in the catalytic domain of naphthalene dioxygenase is essential for activity.
The naphthalene dioxygenase enzyme system carries out the first step in the aerobic degradation of naphthalene by Pseudomonas sp. strain NCIB 9816-4. The crystal structure of naphthalene dioxygenase (B. Kauppi, K. Lee, E. Carredano, R. E. Parales, D. T. Gibson, H. Eklund, and S. Ramaswamy, Structure 6:571-586, 1998) indicates that aspartate 205 may provide the most direct route of electron transfer between the Rieske [2Fe-2S] center of one alpha subunit and mononuclear iron in the adjacent alpha subunit. In this study, we constructed four site-directed mutations that changed aspartate 205 to alanine, glutamate, asparagine, or glutamine to test whether this residue is essential for naphthalene dioxygenase activity. The mutant proteins were very inefficient in oxidizing naphthalene to cis-naphthalene dihydrodiol, and oxygen uptake in the presence of naphthalene was below detectable levels. The purified mutant protein with glutamine in place of aspartate 205 had identical spectral properties to wild-type naphthalene dioxygenase and was reduced by NADH in the presence of catalytic amounts of ferredoxinNAP and reductaseNAP. Benzene, an effective uncoupler of oxygen consumption in purified naphthalene dioxygenase, did not elicit oxygen uptake by the mutant protein. These results indicate that electron transfer from NADH to the Rieske center in the mutant oxygenase is intact, a finding consistent with the proposal that aspartate 205 is a necessary residue in the major pathway of electron transfer to mononuclear iron at the active site. (+info)
All in the family: structural and evolutionary relationships among three modular proteins with diverse functions and variable assembly.
The crystal structures of three proteins of diverse function and low sequence similarity were analyzed to evaluate structural and evolutionary relationships. The proteins include a bacterial bleomycin resistance protein, a bacterial extradiol dioxygenase, and human glyoxalase I. Structural comparisons, as well as phylogenetic analyses, strongly indicate that the modern family of proteins represented by these structures arose through a rich evolutionary history that includes multiple gene duplication and fusion events. These events appear to be historically shared in some cases, but parallel and historically independent in others. A significant early event is proposed to be the establishment of metal-binding in an oligomeric ancestor prior to the first gene fusion. Variations in the spatial arrangements of homologous modules are observed that are consistent with the structural principles of three-dimensional domain swapping, but in the unusual context of the formation of larger monomers from smaller dimers or tetramers. The comparisons support a general mechanism for metalloprotein evolution that exploits the symmetry of a homooligomeric protein to originate a metal binding site and relies upon the relaxation of symmetry, as enabled by gene duplication, to establish and refine specific functions. (+info)
Selection of clc, cba, and fcb chlorobenzoate-catabolic genotypes from groundwater and surface waters adjacent to the Hyde park, Niagara Falls, chemical landfill.
The frequency of isolation of three nonhomologous chlorobenzoate catabolic genotypes (clc, cba, and fcb) was determined for 464 isolates from freshwater sediments and groundwater in the vicinity of the Hyde Park industrial landfill site in the Niagara watershed. Samples were collected from both contaminated and noncontaminated sites during spring, summer, and fall and enriched at 4, 22, or 32 degrees C with micromolar to millimolar concentrations of chlorobenzoates and 3-chlorobiphenyl (M. C. Peel and R. C. Wyndham, Microb. Ecol: 33:59-68, 1997). Hybridization at moderate stringency to restriction-digested genomic DNA with DNA probes revealed the chlorocatechol 1,2-dioxygenase operon (clcABD), the 3-chlorobenzoate 3,4-(4,5)-dioxygenase operon (cbaABC), and the 4-chlorobenzoate dehalogenase (fcbB) gene in isolates enriched from all contaminated sites in the vicinity of the industrial landfill. Nevertheless, the known genes were found in less than 10% of the isolates from the contaminated sites, indicating a high level of genetic diversity in the microbial community. The known genotypes were not enriched from the noncontaminated control sites nearby. The clc, cba, and fcb isolates were distributed across five phenotypically distinct groups based on Biolog carbon source utilization, with the breadth of the host range decreasing in the order clc > cba > fcb. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns showed that the cba genes were conserved in all isolates whereas the clc and fcb genes exhibited variation in RFLP patterns. These observations are consistent with the recent spread of the cba genes by horizontal transfer as part of transposon Tn5271 in response to contaminant exposure at Hyde Park. Consistent with this hypothesis, IS1071, the flanking element in Tn5271, was found in all isolates that carried the cba genes. Interestingly, IS1071 was also found in a high proportion of isolates from Hyde Park carrying the clc and fcb genes, as well as in type strains carrying the clcABD operon and the biphenyl (bph) catabolic genes. (+info)
Phenotypic expression of PCR-generated random mutations in a Pseudomonas putida gene after its introduction into an Acinetobacter chromosome by natural transformation.
Localized sets of random point mutations generated by PCR amplification can be transferred efficiently to the chromosome of Acinetobacter ADP1 (also known as strain BD413) by natural transformation. The technique does not require cloning of PCR fragments in plasmids: PCR-amplified DNA fragments are internalized by cells and directly incorporated into their genomes by homologous recombination. Previously such procedures for random mutagenesis could be applied only to Acinetobacter genes affording the selection of mutant phenotypes. Here we describe the construction of a vector and recipient that allow for mutagenesis, recovery, and expression of heterologous genes that may lack a positive selection. The plasmid carries an Acinetobacter chromosomal segment interrupted by a multiple cloning site next to a kanamycin resistance marker. The insertion of heterologous DNA into the multiple cloning site prepares the insert as a target for PCR mutagenesis. PCR amplifies the kanamycin resistance marker and a flanking region of Acinetobacter DNA along with the insert of heterologous DNA. Nucleotide sequence identity between the flanking regions and corresponding chromosomal segments in an engineered Acinetobacter recipient allows homologous recombination of the PCR-amplified DNA fragments into a specific chromosomal docking site from which they can be expressed. The recipient strain contains only a portion of the kanamycin resistance gene, so donor DNA containing both this gene and the mutagenized insert can be selected by demanding growth of recombinants in the presence of kanamycin. The effectiveness of the technique was demonstrated with the relatively GC-rich Pseudomonas putida xylE gene. After only one round of PCR amplification (35 cycles), donor DNA produced transformants of which up to 30% carried a defective xylE gene after growth at 37 degrees C. Of recombinant clones that failed to express xylE at 37 degrees C, about 10% expressed the gene when grown at 22 degrees C. The techniques described here could be adapted to prepare colonies with an altered function in any gene for which either a selection or a suitable phenotypic screen exists. (+info)
Promoter analysis of the cap8 operon, involved in type 8 capsular polysaccharide production in Staphylococcus aureus.
The production of type 8 capsular polysaccharide (CP8) in Staphylococcus aureus is regulated in response to a variety of environmental factors. The cap8 genes required for the CP8 production in strain Becker are transcribed as a single large transcript by a primary promoter located within a 0.45-kb region upstream of the first gene of the cap8 gene cluster. In this study, we analyzed the primary cap8 promoter region in detail. We determined the transcription initiation site of the primary transcript by primer extension and identified the potential promoter sequences. We found several inverted and direct repeats upstream of the promoter. Deletion analysis and site-directed mutagenesis showed that a 10-bp inverted repeat of one of the repeats was required for promoter activity. We showed that the distance but not the specific sequences between the inverted repeat and the promoter was critical to the promoter activity. However, insertion of a DNA sequence with two or four helix turns in this intervening region had a slight effect on promoter activity. To demonstrate the biological significance of the 10-bp inverted repeat, we constructed a strain with a mutation in the repeat in the S. aureus Becker chromosome and showed that the repeat affected CP8 production mostly at the transcriptional level. By gel mobility shift assay, we demonstrated that strain Becker produced at least one protein capable of specific binding to the 10-bp inverted repeat, indicating that the repeat serves as a positive regulatory protein binding site. In addition, reporter gene fusion analysis showed that the cap8 promoter activity was influenced by various growth media and affected most by yeast extract. Our results suggest that yeast extract may exert its profound inhibitory effect on cap8 gene expression through the 10-bp inverted repeat element. (+info)
Analysis of alkaptonuria (AKU) mutations and polymorphisms reveals that the CCC sequence motif is a mutational hot spot in the homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase gene (HGO).
We recently showed that alkaptonuria (AKU) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the homogentisate 1,2 dioxygenase gene (HGO). Herein we describe haplotype and mutational analyses of HGO in seven new AKU pedigrees. These analyses identified two novel single-nucleotide polymorphisms (INV4+31A-->G and INV11+18A-->G) and six novel AKU mutations (INV1-1G-->A, W60G, Y62C, A122D, P230T, and D291E), which further illustrates the remarkable allelic heterogeneity found in AKU. Reexamination of all 29 mutations and polymorphisms thus far described in HGO shows that these nucleotide changes are not randomly distributed; the CCC sequence motif and its inverted complement, GGG, are preferentially mutated. These analyses also demonstrated that the nucleotide substitutions in HGO do not involve CpG dinucleotides, which illustrates important differences between HGO and other genes for the occurrence of mutation at specific short-sequence motifs. Because the CCC sequence motifs comprise a significant proportion (34.5%) of all mutated bases that have been observed in HGO, we conclude that the CCC triplet is a mutational hot spot in HGO. (+info)
A novel aromatic-ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase from the diterpenoid-degrading bacterium Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9.
Pseudomonas abietaniphila BKME-9 is able to degrade dehydroabietic acid (DhA) via ring hydroxylation by a novel dioxygenase. The ditA1, ditA2, and ditA3 genes, which encode the alpha and beta subunits of the oxygenase and the ferredoxin of the diterpenoid dioxygenase, respectively, were isolated and sequenced. The ferredoxin gene is 9. 2 kb upstream of the oxygenase genes and 872 bp upstream of a putative meta ring cleavage dioxygenase gene, ditC. A Tn5 insertion in the alpha subunit gene, ditA1, resulted in the accumulation by the mutant strain BKME-941 of the pathway intermediate, 7-oxoDhA. Disruption of the ferredoxin gene, ditA3, in wild-type BKME-9 by mutant-allele exchange resulted in a strain (BKME-91) with a phenotype identical to that of the mutant strain BKME-941. Sequence analysis of the putative ferredoxin indicated that it is likely to be a [4Fe-4S]- or [3Fe-4S]-type ferredoxin and not a [2Fe-2S]-type ferredoxin, as found in all previously described ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. Expression in Escherichia coli of ditA1A2A3, encoding the diterpenoid dioxygenase without its putative reductase component, resulted in a functional enzyme. The diterpenoid dioxygenase attacks 7-oxoDhA, and not DhA, at C-11 and C-12, producing 7-oxo-11, 12-dihydroxy-8,13-abietadien acid, which was identified by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance, UV-visible light, and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The organization of the genes encoding the various components of the diterpenoid dioxygenase, the phylogenetic distinctiveness of both the alpha subunit and the ferredoxin component, and the unusual Fe-S cluster of the ferredoxin all suggest that this enzyme belongs to a new class of aromatic ring-hydroxylating dioxygenases. (+info)