Three new naphthoquinone derivatives from Diospyros maritima Blume.
Three new naphthoquinone derivatives, 6-(1-ethoxyethyl)plumbagin (16), ethylidene-3,3'-biplumbagin (17), and ethylidene-3,6'-biplumbagin (18), were isolated, in addition to six known naphthoquinones, isozeylanone (10), 3,3'-biplumbagin (11), chitranone (12), methylene-3,3'-biplumbagin (13), 2,3-epoxyplumbagin (14), and 3,8'-biplumbagin (15), from the fruits of Diospyros maritima Blume (Ebenaceae). The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods. The eight naphthoquinones 11-18 were examined for ichthyotoxic activity and germination inhibitory activity. The quinones 11, 12, and 14-16 showed strong ichthyotoxic activity and the quinone 14 mild germination inhibitory activity. (+info)
Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).
We cloned and characterized Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.). Genomic DNA or methyl jasmonate (MJA)-treated cDNA were used as templates to amplify the reverse transcriptase region of Ty1-copia group retrotransposons. About 280 bp fragments were amplified and cloned, and 97 clones were sequenced. Forty-nine clones included frameshift or the stop codon, or both. Among 48 clones containing complete reading frames, 42 clones had unique nucleotide sequences. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis of putative amino acid sequences in the 42 clones indicated that these clones (named Tdk; retroTransposon in Diospyros kaki) fell into seven subgroups and six ungrouped sequences, indicating high sequence heterogeneity in Tdk clones. Phylogenetic analysis comparing unrelated plant species shows that some Tdk clones are more closely related to Ty1-copia group retrotransposons in the orders Solanales and Sapindales rather than to other Tdk clones. Southern blot analysis using Tdk2B, Tdk4c, Tdk6Ac, Tdk12K and Tdk13G clones as probes showed that persimmon and its related species, D. lotus, D. lotus var. glabba, D. oleifera, D. rhombifolia and D. virginiana, contained multiple Tdk-like sequences, indicating that homologous elements exist in other Diospyros species. (+info)
pH regulates endoglucanase expression and virulence of Alternaria alternata in persimmon fruit.
The phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata produces one endo-1,4-beta-glucanase, AaK1, which is an important factor in disease development in persimmon fruit. During growth of A. alternata in media containing acidified yeast extract or cell walls from persimmon fruit, the fungus secreted ammonia and raised the medium pH. A rise in media pH from 3.8 to 6.0 in the presence of cell walls induced the expression of AaK1, whereas a glucose-induced decline in pH to 2.5 repressed transcription and enzymatic production. Treatments with buffered solutions at pH 6.0 during growth of A. alternata in the presence of glucose derepressed AaK1 expression and endo-1,4-beta-glucanase production and enhanced decay development on the fruit. The results suggest that conditions affecting environmental pH modulate gene expression of AaK1 and virulence of A. alternata in persimmon fruit (+info)
Ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initiated in calyx and modulated by water loss from the fruit.
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) fruit are usually classified as climacteric fruit; however, unlike typical climacteric fruits, persimmon fruit exhibit a unique characteristic in that the younger the stage of fruit detached, the greater the level of ethylene produced. To investigate ethylene induction mechanisms in detached young persimmon fruit, we cloned three cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (DK-ACS1, 2, and -3) and two encoding ACC oxidase (DK-ACO1 and -2) genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, and we analyzed their expression in various fruit tissues. Ethylene production was induced within a few days of detachment in all fruit tissues tested, accompanied by temporally and spatially coordinated expression of all the DK-ACS and DK-ACO genes. In all tissues except the calyx, treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene, an inhibitor of ethylene action, suppressed ethylene production and ethylene biosynthesis-related gene expression. In the calyx, one ACC synthase gene (DK-ACS2) exhibited increased mRNA accumulation accompanied by a large quantity of ethylene production, and treatment of the fruit with 1-methylcyclopropene did not prevent either the accumulation of DK-ACS2 transcripts or ethylene induction. Furthermore, the alleviation of water loss from the fruit significantly delayed the onset of ethylene production and the expression of DK-ACS2 in the calyx. These results indicate that ethylene biosynthesis in detached young persimmon fruit is initially induced in calyx and is modulated by water loss through transcriptional activation of DK-ACS2. The ethylene produced in the calyx subsequently diffuses to other fruit tissues and acts as a secondary signal that stimulates autocatalytic ethylene biosynthesis in these tissues, leading to a burst of ethylene production. (+info)
Regulation of the peripheral body temperature by foods: a temperature decrease induced by the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki).
We investigated whether the ingestion of the Japanese persimmon (kaki, Diospyros kaki) could lower the human peripheral body temperature. It was found that the temperatures recorded at the foot and wrist were depressed after kaki consumption compared to after the same amount of water consumption. The effects of ingesting freeze-dried kaki and eating a cookie (as its nutritional counterpart) containing the same amount of carbohydrate, protein, fat, and water were compared. A similar temperature-reducing effect of kaki was observed. The recovery of finger temperature after soaking the finger in ice-cooled water was also studied. The temperature recovery was delayed after kaki consumption. It was thus quantitatively demonstrated that ingesting kaki indeed had the effect of lowering (or repressing the rise) of the peripheral human body temperature, as has been traditionally believed in China for many hundreds of years. (+info)
beta-Galactosidase and its significance in ripening of "Saijyo" Japanese Persimmon fruit.
The fruit extracts of ripening cv. Japanese Persimmon, "Saijyo", contained a number of glycosidases and glycanases. Among them, beta-galactosidase appeared to be the most significant, and the activity increased in parallel with tissue ripening. Persimmon beta-galactosidase was presented in at least three isoforms, beta-galactosidase-I (pI = 4.88), beta-galactosidase-II (pI = 6.76), and beta-galactosidase-III (pI = 7.05). beta-Galactosidase-III had exo-type galactanase activity, while the others did not. The activity of endo-type glycanases was a maximum in immature green or yellow fruits. The firmness of the pulp tissue decreased dramatically, and the amount of water-soluble polysaccharide (WSS) increased. The enzyme activities of exo-type glycosidases, especially beta-galactosidase, appeared maximal in mature red fruits. The amount of extractable pectin remained unchanged, although the galactose content of the high-molecular-weight fraction in WSS decreased dramatically. These results suggest that the ripening of persimmon was caused by the solubilization of pectic polysaccharide by endo-type glycanases and digestion by exo-type glycosidases. beta-Galactosidase, in particular, seemed to play a major role in ripening the fruit. (+info)
Synthesis and characterization of hexadecadienyl compounds with a conjugated diene system, sex pheromone of the persimmon fruit moth and related compounds.
Hexadecadien-1-ol and the derivatives (acetate and aldehyde) with a conjugated diene system have recently been identified from a pheromone gland extract of the persimmon fruit moth (Stathmopoda masinissa), a pest insect of persimmon fruits distributed in East Asia. The alcohol and acetate showed their base peaks at m/z 79 in a GC-MS analysis by electron impact ionization, but the aldehyde produced a unique base peak at m/z 84, suggesting a 4,6-diene structure. To confirm this inference, four geometrical isomers of each 4,6-hexadecadienyl compound were synthesized by two different routes in which one of two double bonds was furnished in a highly stereoselective manner. Separation of the two isomers synthesized together by each route was facilely accomplished by preparative HPLC. Their mass spectra coincided well with those of natural components, indicating that they were available for use as authentic standards for determining the configuration of the natural pheromone. Furthermore, other hexadecadienyl compounds, including the conjugated diene system between the 3- and 10-positions, were synthesized to accumulate the spectral data of pheromone candidates. 5,7-Hexadecadienal interestingly showed the base peak at m/z 80; meanwhile, the base peaks of its alcohol and acetate were detected at m/z 79 like the corresponding 4,6-dienes. The base peaks of all 6,8-, 7,9-, and 8,10-dienes universally appeared at m/z 67 like 9,11-, 10,12-, and 13,15-dienes, the spectra of which have already been published. Although 3,5-hexadecadienal was not prepared, base peaks at m/z 67 and 79 were recorded for the alcohol and acetate, respectively. (+info)
Mechanism of gold adsorption by persimmon tannin gel.
Gold adsorption by persimmon tannin (PT) gel from a solution containing hydrogen tetrachloroaurate(III) was examined. A flow-rate examination in a column system indicated the reduction of Au(III) ion to Au(0). XRD patterns clarified the existence of Au(0) on the gel which adsorbed gold. The gel could also adsorb colloidal Au(0) prepared independently. A model consisting of ligand exchange, Au(III) reduction to Au(0), and resulting Au(0) adsorption by PT gel was presented for the gold adsorption mechanism. (+info)