Enrichment of canalicular membrane with cholesterol and sphingomyelin prevents bile salt-induced hepatic damage.
These studies were undertaken to characterize the role of plasma membrane cholesterol in canalicular secretory functions and hepatocyte integrity against intravenous taurocholate administration. Cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations and cholesterol/phospholipid ratios were significantly increased in canalicular membranes of diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting a more resistant structure against solubilization by taurocholate. During taurocholate infusion, control rats had significantly decreased bile flow, whereas diosgenin-fed animals maintained bile flow. Maximal cholesterol output increased by 176% in diosgenin-fed rats, suggesting an increased precursor pool of biliary cholesterol in these animals. Maximal phospholipid output only increased by 43% in diosgenin-fed rats, whereas bile salt output remained at control levels. The kinetics of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, lactic dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase activities in bile showed a significantly faster release in control than in diosgenin-fed rats. After 30 min of intravenous taurocholate infusion, necrotic hepatocytes were significantly increased in control animals. Preservation of bile secretory functions and hepatocellular cytoprotection by diosgenin against the intravenous infusion of toxic doses of taurocholate was associated with an increased concentration of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the canalicular membrane. The increase of biliary cholesterol output induced by diosgenin was correlated to the enhanced concentration of cholesterol in the canalicular membrane. (+info)
Effects of two saponins extracted from the polygonatum Zanlanscianense pamp on the human leukemia (HL-60) cells.
Two saponins, methyl protodioscin and dioscin, were extracted from the root of Polygonatum Zanlanscianense Pamp. One of them, dioscin exerted significant inhibitory effects on the growth of the human leukemia cell HL-60, inducing differentiation and apoptosis. HL60 cells were induced mainly along the granulocytic lineage. In addition, we have found that dioscin affects many cancer cells. These studies may have important significance in treating related cancers. (+info)
A plant steroid, diosgenin, induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and COX activity in osteosarcoma cells.
Cyclooxygenases (COXs) are key enzymes in the conversion of arachidonic acid into prostanoids which are involved in apoptosis and inflammation. Two distinct COXs have been identified: COX-1 which is constitutively expressed and COX-2 which is induced by different products such as tumor promoters or growth factors. Previously, we demonstrated that a plant steroid, diosgenin, was a new megakaryocytic differentiation inducer of human erythroleukemia cells. In our study, we investigated the effect of diosgenin on the proliferation rate, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis in the human osteosarcoma 1547 cell line. The effects of this compound were also tested on COX expression and COX activities. Diosgenin treatment caused an inhibition of 1547 cell growth with a cycle arrest in G1 phase and apoptosis induction. Moreover, we found a correlation between p53, p21 mRNA expression and nuclear factor-kappaB activation and we observed a time-dependent increase in PGE2 synthesis after diosgenin treatment. (+info)
Cytotoxic activities and structure-cytotoxic relationships of steroidal saponins.
We have systematically examined the cytotoxic activities of the steroidal saponins mainly isolated from the Liliaceae plants against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells and found several structure-activity relationships. Some steroidal saponins evaluated in the assay system showed considerable cytotoxic activities, which were almost as potent as that of etoposide used as a positive control. The activities were found to be sensitive to the monosaccharides constituting the sugar moieties and their sequences, as well as to the structures of the aglycons. (+info)
Apoptosis induced by dioscin in Hela cells.
Dioscin, a saponin extracted from the root of Polygonatum Zanlanscianense Pamp, markedly inhibited proliferation of Hela cells. The results indicated that Hela cells underwent apoptosis in dose- and time-dependent manners when treated with Dioscin. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities were also detected. The low enzymatic activity of caspase-8 and high activity of caspase-9 showed that the mitochondrial pathway was activated in apoptosis. The reduced expression of the survival protein Bcl-2 also confirmed this result. These studies may be significant in finding a new drug to treat human cervical cancer. (+info)
Sonic hedgehog activates mesenchymal Gli1 expression during prostate ductal bud formation.
Ductal budding in the developing prostate is a testosterone-dependent event that involves signaling between the urogenital sinus epithelium (UGE) and urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM). We show here that ductal bud formation is associated with focused expression of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) in the epithelium of nascent prostate buds and in the growing tips of elongating prostate ducts. This pattern of localized Shh expression occurs in response to testosterone stimulation. The gene for the Shh receptor, Ptc1, is expressed in the UGM, as are the members of the Gli gene family of transcriptional regulators (Gli1, Gli2, and Gli3). Expression of Ptc1, Gli1, and Gli2 is localized primarily to mesenchyme surrounding prostate buds, whereas Gli3 is expressed diffusely throughout the UGM. A strong dependence of Gli1 (and Ptc1) expression on Shh signaling is demonstrated by induction of expression in both the intact urogenital sinus and the isolated UGM by exogenous SHH peptide. A similar dependence of Gli2 and Gli3 expression on Shh is not observed. Nonetheless, the chemical inhibitor of Shh signaling, cyclopamine, produced a graded inhibition of Gli gene expression (Gli1>Gli2>Gli3) in urogenital sinus explants that was paralleled by a severe inhibition of ductal budding. (+info)
Anti-obesity effect of Dioscorea nipponica Makino with lipase-inhibitory activity in rodents.
In the process of screening for pancreatic lipase inhibitors, which could be used as an anti-obesity measure, the methanol extract of Dioscorea nipponica Makino powder (DP) appeared to have potent inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic lipase with an IC50 value of 5-10 microg/ml, where the enzyme activity was assayed by using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate as a substrate. Further purification of active components present in the herb generated dioscin that belongs to the saponin family. Dioscin and its aglycone, diosgenin, both suppressed the time-dependent increase of blood triacylglycerol level when orally injected with corn oil to mice, suggesting their inhibitory potential against fat absorption. Sprague-Dawley rats fed on a high-fat diet containing 5% Dioscorea nipponica Makino and 40% beef tallow gained significantly less body weight and adipose tissue than control animals fed on a high-fat diet alone during an 8-week experimental period (P<0.05). (+info)
Diosgenin, a plant steroid, induces apoptosis in human rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes with cyclooxygenase-2 overexpression.
In the present study, we have shown for the first time that a plant steroid, diosgenin, causes an inhibition of the growth of fibroblast-like synoviocytes from human rheumatoid arthritis, with apoptosis induction associated with cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) up-regulation. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, provoked a large decrease in diosgenin-induced apoptosis even in the presence of exogenous prostaglandin E2, whereas interleukin-1beta, a COX-2 inducer, strongly increased diosgenin-induced apoptosis of these synoviocytes. These findings suggest that the proapoptotic effect of diosgenin is associated with overexpression of COX-2 correlated with overproduction of endogenous prostaglandin E2. We also observed a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation after diosgenin treatment. (+info)