The presence of ADP-ribosylated Fe protein of nitrogenase in Rhodobacter capsulatus is correlated with cellular nitrogen status.
The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus has been shown to regulate its nitrogenase by covalent modification via the reversible ADP-ribosylation of Fe protein in response to darkness or the addition of external NH4+. Here we demonstrate the presence of ADP-ribosylated Fe protein under a variety of steady-state growth conditions. We examined the modification of Fe protein and nitrogenase activity under three different growth conditions that establish different levels of cellular nitrogen: batch growth with limiting NH4+, where the nitrogen status is externally controlled; batch growth on relatively poor nitrogen sources, where the nitrogen status is internally controlled by assimilatory processes; and continuous culture. When cultures were grown to stationary phase with different limiting concentrations of NH4+, the ADP-ribosylation state of Fe protein was found to correlate with cellular nitrogen status. Additionally, actively growing cultures (grown with N2 or glutamate), which had an intermediate cellular nitrogen status, contained a portion of their Fe protein in the modified state. The correlation between cellular nitrogen status and ADP-ribosylation state was corroborated with continuous cultures grown under various degrees of nitrogen limitation. These results show that in R. capsulatus the modification system that ADP-ribosylates nitrogenase in the short term in response to abrupt changes in the environment is also capable of modifying nitrogenase in accordance with long-term cellular conditions. (+info)
Inhibition of iron-molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis by L127Delta NifH and evidence for a complex formation between L127Delta NifH and NifNE.
Besides serving as the obligate electron donor to dinitrogenase during nitrogenase turnover, dinitrogenase reductase (NifH) is required for the biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co) and for the maturation of alpha(2)beta(2) apo-dinitrogenase (apo-dinitrogenase maturation). In an attempt to understand the role of NifH in FeMo-co biosynthesis, a site-specific altered form of NifH in which leucine at position 127 has been deleted, L127Delta, was employed in in vitro FeMo-co synthesis assays. This altered form of NifH has been shown to inhibit substrate reduction by the wild-type nitrogenase complex, forming a tight protein complex with dinitrogenase. The L127Delta NifH was found to inhibit in vitro FeMo-co synthesis by wild-type NifH as detected by the gamma gel shift assay. Increasing the concentration of NifNE and NifB-cofactor (NifB-co) relieved the inhibition of FeMo-co synthesis by L127Delta NifH. The formation of a complex of L127Delta NifH with NifNE was investigated by gel filtration chromatography. We herein report the formation of a complex between L127Delta NifH and NifNE in the presence of NifB-co. This work presents evidence for one of the possible roles for NifH in FeMo-co biosynthesis, i.e. the interaction of NifH with a NifNE.NifB-co complex. (+info)
Phylogenetic diversity of nitrogen fixation genes in the symbiotic microbial community in the gut of diverse termites.
Nitrogen fixation by the microorganisms in the gut of termites is one of the crucial aspects of symbiosis, since termites usually thrive on a nitrogen-poor diet. The phylogenetic diversity of the nitrogen-fixing organisms within the symbiotic community in the guts of various termite species was investigated without culturing the resident microorganisms. A portion of the dinitrogenase reductase gene (nifH) was directly amplified from DNA extracted from the mixed population in the termite gut. Analysis of deduced amino acid sequences of the products of the clonally isolated nifH genes revealed the presence of diverse nifH sequences in most of the individual termite species, and their constituents were considerably different among termite species. A majority of the nifH sequences from six lower termites, which showed significant levels of nitrogen fixation activity, could be assigned to either the anaerobic nif group (consisting of clostridia and sulfur reducers) or the alternative nif methanogen group among the nifH phylogenetic groups. In the case of three higher termites, which showed only low levels of nitrogen fixation activity, a large number of the sequences were assigned to the most divergent nif group, probably functioning in some process other than nitrogen fixation and being derived from methanogenic archaea. The nifH groups detected were similar within each termite family but different among the termite families, suggesting an evolutionary trend reflecting the diazotrophic habitats in the symbiotic community. Within these phylogenetic groups, the sequences from the termites formed lineages distinct from those previously recognized in studies using classical microbiological techniques, and several sequence clusters unique to termites were found. The results indicate the presence of diverse potentially nitrogen-fixing microbial assemblages in the guts of termites, and the majority of them are as yet uncharacterized. (+info)
Immunolocalization of dinitrogenase reductase produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in association with Zea mays L.
The endophytic lifestyle of Klebsiella pneumoniae is described, including the production of dinitrogenase reductase by bacteria residing in maize root tissue. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) was used to detect the colonization of maize by K. pneumoniae strains 2028 and 342. These strains were found to reside in intercortical layers of the stem and within the region of maturation in the root. The production of dinitrogenase reductase by GFP-tagged bacteria was visualized using immunolocalization. This activity was only apparent when bacteria were supplied with an exogenous carbon source. The results suggest that maize provides a suitable habitat for K. pneumoniae and that this species is capable of producing nitrogenase under the appropriate plant cultivation conditions. (+info)
ADP-Ribosylation of variants of Azotobacter vinelandii dinitrogenase reductase by Rhodospirillum rubrum dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase.
In a number of nitrogen-fixing bacteria, nitrogenase is posttranslationally regulated by reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase. The structure of the dinitrogenase reductase from Azotobacter vinelandii is known. In this study, mutant forms of dinitrogenase reductase from A. vinelandii that are affected in various protein activities were tested for their ability to be ADP-ribosylated or to form a complex with dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT) from Rhodospirillum rubrum. R140Q dinitrogenase reductase could not be ADP-ribosylated by DRAT, although it still formed a cross-linkable complex with DRAT. Thus, the Arg 140 residue of dinitrogenase reductase plays a critical role in the ADP-ribosylation reaction. Conformational changes in dinitrogenase reductase induced by an F135Y substitution or by removal of the Fe(4)S(4) cluster resulted in dinitrogenase reductase not being a substrate for ADP-ribosylation. Through cross-linking studies it was also shown that these changes decreased the ability of dinitrogenase reductase to form a cross-linkable complex with DRAT. Substitution of D129E or deletion of Leu 127, which result in altered nucleotide binding regions of these dinitrogenase reductases, did not significantly change the interaction between dinitrogenase reductase and DRAT. Previous results showed that changing Lys 143 to Gln decreased the binding between dinitrogenase reductase and dinitrogenase (L. C. Seefeldt, Protein Sci. 3:2073-2081, 1994); however, this change did not have a substantial effect on the interaction between dinitrogenase reductase and DRAT. (+info)
Role of the dinitrogenase reductase arginine 101 residue in dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase binding, NAD binding, and cleavage.
Dinitrogenase reductase is posttranslationally regulated by dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT) via ADP-ribosylation of the arginine 101 residue in some bacteria. Rhodospirillum rubrum strains in which the arginine 101 of dinitrogenase reductase was replaced by tyrosine, phenylalanine, or leucine were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis of the nifH gene. The strain containing the R101F form of dinitrogenase reductase retains 91%, the strain containing the R101Y form retains 72%, and the strain containing the R101L form retains only 28% of in vivo nitrogenase activity of the strain containing the dinitrogenase reductase with arginine at position 101. In vivo acetylene reduction assays, immunoblotting with anti-dinitrogenase reductase antibody, and [adenylate-(32)P]NAD labeling experiments showed that no switch-off of nitrogenase activity occurred in any of the three mutants and no ADP-ribosylation of altered dinitrogenase reductases occurred either in vivo or in vitro. Altered dinitrogenase reductases from strains UR629 (R101Y) and UR630 (R101F) were purified to homogeneity. The R101F and R101Y forms of dinitrogenase reductase were able to form a complex with DRAT that could be chemically cross-linked by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide. The R101F form of dinitrogenase reductase and DRAT together were not able to cleave NAD. This suggests that arginine 101 is not critical for the binding of DRAT to dinitrogenase reductase but that the availability of arginine 101 is important for NAD cleavage. Both DRAT and dinitrogenase reductase can be labeled by [carbonyl-(14)C]NAD individually upon UV irradiation, but most (14)C label is incorporated into DRAT when both proteins are present. The ability of R101F dinitrogenase reductase to be labeled by [carbonyl-(14)C]NAD suggested that Arg 101 is not absolutely required for NAD binding. (+info)
Effect of P(II) and its homolog GlnK on reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase by heterologous expression of the Rhodospirillum rubrum dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyl transferase-dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase regulatory system in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase, catalyzed by the dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyl transferase-dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DRAT-DRAG) regulatory system, has been characterized in Rhodospirillum rubrum and other nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To investigate the mechanisms for the regulation of DRAT and DRAG activities, we studied the heterologous expression of R. rubrum draTG in Klebsiella pneumoniae glnB and glnK mutants. In K. pneumoniae wild type, the regulation of both DRAT and DRAG activity appears to be comparable to that seen in R. rubrum. However, the regulation of both DRAT and DRAG activities is altered in a glnB background. Some DRAT escapes regulation and becomes active under N-limiting conditions. The regulation of DRAG activity is also altered in a glnB mutant, with DRAG being inactivated more slowly in response to NH4+ treatment than is seen in wild type, resulting in a high residual nitrogenase activity. In a glnK background, the regulation of DRAT activity is similar to that seen in wild type. However, the regulation of DRAG activity is completely abolished in the glnK mutant; DRAG remains active even after NH4+ addition, so there is no loss of nitrogenase activity. The results with this heterologous expression system have implications for DRAT-DRAG regulation in R. rubrum. (+info)
Isolation and characterization of draT mutants that have altered regulatory properties of dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase in Rhodospirillum rubrum.
In Rhodospirillum rubrum, dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT) is responsible for the ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase in response to the addition of NH(+)(4) or removal from light, resulting in a decrease in nitrogenase activity. DRAT is itself subject to post-translational regulation; to investigate the mechanism for the regulation of DRAT activity, random PCR mutagenesis of draT (encoding DRAT) was performed and mutants with altered DRAT regulation were screened. Two mutants (with substitutions of K103E and N248D) were obtained in which DRAT showed activity under conditions where wild-type DRAT (DRAT-WT) did not. These mutants showed lower nitrogenase activity and a higher degree of ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase under N(2)-fixing conditions than was seen in a wild-type control strain. DRAT-K103E was overexpressed and purified. DRAT-K103E displayed a much weaker affinity for an Affi-gel Blue matrix than did DRAT-WT, suggestive of a fairly striking biochemical change. However, there was no significant difference in kinetic constants, such as K(m) for NAD and V(max), between DRAT-K103E and DRAT-WT. Like DRAT-WT, DRAT-K103E also modified reduced dinitrogenase reductase poorly. The biochemical properties of these variants are rationalized with respect to their behaviour in vivo. (+info)