Mice that lack the angiogenesis inhibitor, thrombospondin 2, mount an altered foreign body reaction characterized by increased vascularity.
Disruption of the thrombospondin 2 gene (Thbs2) in mice results in a complex phenotype characterized chiefly by abnormalities in fibroblasts, connective tissues, and blood vessels. Consideration of this phenotype suggested to us that the foreign body reaction (FBR) might be altered in thrombospondin 2 (TSP2)-null mice. To investigate the participation of TSP2 in the FBR, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and oxidized PDMS (ox-PDMS) disks were implanted in TSP2-null and control mice. Growth of TSP2-null and control skin fibroblasts in vitro also was evaluated on both types of disks. Normal fibroblasts grew as a monolayer on both surfaces, but attachment of the cells to ox-PDMS was weak and sensitive to movement. TSP2-null fibroblasts grew as aggregates on both surfaces, and their attachment was further compromised on ox-PDMS. After a 4-week implantation period, both types of PDMS elicited a similar FBR with a collagenous capsule in both TSP2-null and control mice. However, strikingly, the collagenous capsule that formed in TSP2-null mice was highly vascularized and thicker than that formed in normal mice. In addition, abnormally shaped collagen fibers were observed in capsules from mutant mice. These observations indicate that the presence or absence of an extracellular matrix component, TSP2, can influence the nature of the FBR, in particular its vascularity. The expression of TSP2 therefore could represent a molecular target for local inhibitory measures when vascularization of the tissue surrounding an implanted device is desired. (+info)
Microbial degradation of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane.
The microbial degradation of low-molecular-weight polydimethylsiloxanes was investigated through laboratory experiments. Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane was found to be biodegraded under anaerobic conditions in composted sewage sludge, as monitored by the occurrence of the main polydimethylsiloxane degradation product, dimethylsilanediol, compared to that found in experiments with sterilized control samples. (+info)
Novel vascular graft grown within recipient's own peritoneal cavity.
A method by which to overcome the clinical symptoms of atherosclerosis is the insertion of a graft to bypass an artery blocked or impeded by plaque. However, there may be insufficient autologous mammary artery for multiple or repeat bypass, saphenous vein may have varicose degenerative alterations that can lead to aneurysm in high-pressure sites, and small-caliber synthetic grafts are prone to thrombus induction and occlusion. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to develop an artificial blood conduit of any required length and diameter from the cells of the host for autologous transplantation. Silastic tubing, of variable length and diameter, was inserted into the peritoneal cavity of rats or rabbits. By 2 weeks, it had become covered by several layers of myofibroblasts, collagen matrix, and a single layer of mesothelium. The Silastic tubing was removed from the harvested implants, and the tube of living tissue was everted such that it now resembled a blood vessel with an inner lining of nonthrombotic mesothelial cells (the "intima"), with a "media" of smooth muscle-like cells (myofibroblasts), collagen, and elastin, and with an outer collagenous "adventitia." The tube of tissue (10 to 20 mm long) was successfully grafted by end-to-end anastomoses into the severed carotid artery or abdominal aorta of the same animal in which they were grown. The transplant remained patent for at least 4 months and developed structures resembling elastic lamellae. The myofibroblasts gained a higher volume fraction of myofilaments and became responsive to contractile agonists, similar to the vessel into which they had been grafted. It is suggested that these nonthrombogenic tubes of living tissue, grown in the peritoneal cavity of the host, may be developed as autologous coronary artery bypass grafts or as arteriovenous access fistulae for hemodialysis patients. (+info)
Rapid analysis of amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDA, and MDMA in urine using solid-phase microextraction, direct on-fiber derivatization, and analysis by GC-MS.
A rapid, sensitive, and solvent-free procedure for the simultaneous determination of amphetamine, methamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in urine was developed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in the selected ion monitoring mode. A headspace vial containing the urine sample, NaOH, NaCl, and amphetamine-d3 as the internal standard was heated at 100 degrees C for 20 min. A polydimethylsiloxane fiber was maintained in the vial headspace for 10 min in order to adsorb the amphetaminic compounds, which were subsequently derivatized by exposing the fiber to trifluoroacetic anhydride for 20 min in the headspace of another vial maintained at 60 degrees C for 20 min. The trifluoroacetyl derivatives were desorbed in the GC injection port for 5 min. Several parameters were considered during the method optimization process. These included a comparison of SPME with or without headspace, the required derivatization procedure, and the influence of temperature on the headspace extraction and derivatization methods. The optimized method was validated for the four compounds tested. Calibration curves showed linearity in the range 50-1000 ng/mL (r = 0.9946-0.9999). Recovery data were 71.89-103.24%. The quantitation limits were 10 ng/mL for amphetamine and methamphetamine and 20 ng/mL for MDA and MDMA. All of these data recommend the applicability of the method for use in the analytical routine of a forensic laboratory. (+info)
Use of solid-phase microextraction (SPME) for the determination of methadone and its main metabolite, EDDP, in plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
A simple, rapid method for the determination of methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) in plasma using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is proposed. A 100-microm polydimethylsiloxane film fiber was exposed by immersion for 30 min in a diluted plasma solution (1:4 with buffer pH 9) containing both compounds and an internal standard (proadifen). Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range 50-2000 ng/mL. The analysis time was 45 min per sample. The determination of methadone and EDDP was subject to no interference. The performance of SPME was compared with that of liquid-liquid extraction, obtaining lower limits of detection for EDDP. The method using the two extraction procedures was applied to 10 plasma samples from methadone-treated patients. (+info)
Patterned deposition of cells and proteins onto surfaces by using three-dimensional microfluidic systems.
Three-dimensional microfluidic systems were fabricated and used to pattern proteins and mammalian cells on a planar substrate. The three-dimensional topology of the microfluidic network in the stamp makes this technique a versatile one with which to pattern multiple types of proteins and cells in complex, discontinuous structures on a surface. The channel structure, formed by the stamp when it is in contact with the surface of the substrate, limits migration and growth of cells in the channels. With the channel structure in contact with the surface, the cells stop dividing once they form a confluent layer. Removal of the stamp permits the cells to spread and divide. (+info)
Microfabrication of an analog of the basal lamina: biocompatible membranes with complex topographies.
A microfabrication approach was used to produce novel analogs of the basal lamina with complex topographic features. A test pattern of ridges and channels with length scales (40 to 310 micrometer) similar to the invaginations found in a native basal lamina was laser machined into the surface of a polyimide master chip. Negative replicates of the chip were produced using polydimethylsiloxane silicone elastomer and these replicates were used as templates for the production of thin ( approximately 21 micrometer) membranes of collagen or gelatin. The resulting membranes had a complex topography of ridges and channels that recapitulated the features of the master chip. To demonstrate their utility, these complex membranes were laminated to type I collagen sponges and their surfaces were seeded with cultured human epidermal keratinocytes to form a skin equivalent. The keratinocytes formed a differentiated and stratified epidermis that conformed to the features of the microfabricated membrane. The topography of the membrane influenced the differentiation of the keratinocytes because stratification was enhanced in the deeper channels. Membrane topography also controlled the gross surface features of the skin equivalent; infolds of the epidermis increased as channel depth increased. These novel microfabricated analogs of the basal lamina will help to elucidate the influence of topography on epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation and should have applications in the tissue engineering of skin equivalents as well as other basal lamina-containing tissues. (+info)
Solid-phase microextraction in the determination of methadone in human saliva by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with a 100-microm polydimethylsiloxane film fiber was applied to the determination of methadone and 2-ethylidine-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) by GC-MS in human saliva and compared with liquid-liquid extraction. A shorter extraction time of 30 min with the fiber was obtained, speeding up the total analysis time. Linearity was found for SPME from 0.05 to 2.0 microg/mL (r = 0.9976 for methadone; r = 0.9988 for EDDP) with precision between 0.7 and 4.3% for saliva spiked with 0.2 and 1.5 microg/mL of methadone and EDDP. The limit of detection using SPME was 0.04 microg/mL for methadone and 0.008 microg/mL for EDDP. Analytical recoveries of SPME and liquid-liquid extraction ranged from 98.8 to 103.6%. The use of deuterated internal standard by both methods have yielded comparable results. Thus, the SPME method is highly accurate, precise, and useful for determination of methadone and EDDP in saliva. (+info)