Interaction of diiodo-L-tyrosine and triiodophenol with bovine serum albumin. Circular dichroism and fluorescence studies.
As a model study to investigate the binding mechanism between thyroid hormones and carrier protein, the interaction of diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT) and triiodophenol (I3phi) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by circular dichroism (CD) and fluorescence methods. In both the DIT-BSA system and the I3phi-BSA system, induced Cotton effect was observed in the wavelength region near 320 nm. This induced Cotton effect was measured at various molar ratios of ligands to BSA (L/P). The value of the ellipticity at 319 nm, [theta]319, in the I3phi-BSA system was remarkably large compared with that of the DIT-BSA system, and [theta]319 at an L/P ratio of one was -1.96 X 10(4) (degree cm2 decimole-1) for the I3phi-BSA system and -0.1 X 10(4) for the DIT-BSA system. The binding constants for the combination of BSA with a single molecule of ligand, calculated by measuring the quenching of the fluorescence of the protein, were 1.33 X 10(5) M(-1) at 15 degrees for the DIT-BSA system and 1.6 X 10(9) M(-1) at 28 degrees for the I3theta-BSA system. These results suggest that the binding of I3theta to BSA is stronger than that of DIT and a cleft may exist more congruent with the molecular dimensions of I3theta than with those of DIT. (+info
A multiple ligand-binding radioimmunoassay of diiodotyrosine.
A radioimmunoassay has been developed for the measurement of 3,5-diiodo-L-tyrosine (DIT) in serum. DIT was coupled to porcine thyroglobulin (PTg) with a molar ratio of 205:1. Rabbits were immunized with 1 mg of immunogen emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Sera were screened for their ability to bind trace amounts of [125I]DIT. A serum that bound 40% of the tracer at a final dilution of 1:1,750 was used in the assay. Assay specificity was improved by the use of thyroxine (T4)-binding globulin as a second ligand-binding protein to decrease T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) cross-reactivity with the antibody. Double antibody and polyethylene glycol radioimmunoassays were compared. DIT present in the second antiserum shifted the double antibody assay standard curve and altered estimates of assay specificity and assay sensitivity. By using the polyethylene glycol system and butanol:ethanol extracts of serum, DIT was measured in human serum. In 35 apparently healthy young adult controls DIT levels averaged 156 ng/100 ml. Random DIT levels averaged 158 ng/100 ml in 11 untreated hyperthyroid patients and 84 ng/100 ml in 15 untreated primary hypothyroid patients. No diurnal pattern in DIT levels could be demonstrated. Thyroid-stimulating hormone administration led to a variable but small rise in DIT levels, but short term T3 suppression was not associated with a measurable fall in DIT concentrations. Paired serum samples from the carotid artery and thyroid vein of 10 euthyroid goiter patients and one patient with a toxic solitary adenoma all showed a positive transthyroidal gradient indicating the thyroidal release of DIT in each patient. Measurable DIT levels of 45, 47, 68, and 80 ng/100 ml, respectively, were found in four fasting athyrotic patients indicating that the thyroid is not the only source of serum DIT. (+info
Free diiodotyrosine effects on protein iodination and thyroid hormone synthesis catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase.
Free diiosotyrosine exerts two opposite effects on the reactions catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin iodination and thyroid hormone formation. 1. Inhibition of thyroglobulin iodination catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase was observed when free diiodotyrosine concentration was higher than 5 muM. This inhibition was competitive, suggesting that free diiodotyrosine interacts with the substrate site(s) of thyroid peroxidase. Free diiodotyrosine also competively inhibited iodide peroxidation to I2. 2. Free diiodotyrosine, when incubated with thyroid peroxidase in the absence of iodide was recovered unmodified; in the presence of iodide an exchange reaction was observed between the iodine atoms present in the diiodotyrosine molecule and iodide present in the medium. Using 14C-labelled diiodotyrosine, 14C-labelled non-iodinated products were also observed, showing that deiodination occurred as a minor degradation pathway. However, no monoiodo[14C]tyrosine or E114C]tyrosine were observed. Exchange reaction between free diiototyrosine and iodide is therefore direct and does not imply deiodination-iodination intermediary steps. Thyroglobulin inhibits diiodotyrosine-iodide exchange and vice versa, again suggesting competition for both reactions. These results support, by a different experimental approach, the two-site model for peroxidase previously described by us in this journal. 3. Free diiodotyrosine when present at a very low concentration, 0.05 muM, exerts a stimulatory effect on throid hormones synthesis. The relationship between diiodotyrosine concentration and thyroid hormone synthesis give an S-shaped curve, suggesting that free diiodotyrosine acts as a regulatory ligand for thyroid peroxidase. Evidence is also presented that free diiodotyrosine is not incorporated into thyroid hormones. Therefore, thyroid peroxidase catalyzes only intra-molecular coupling between iodotyrosine hormonogenic residues. 4. Finally, although no direct proof exists that these free diiodotyrosine effects upon thyroglobulin iodination and thyroid hormone synthesis are physiologically significant, such a possibility deserves further investigation. (+info
The effect of iodide administration on hog thyroid gland and the composition of thyroglobulin and 27-S iodoprotein.
The effect of excess iodide on hog thyroid gland has been examined with regard to the change in the chemical composition of thyroglobulin and in the accumulation of 27-S iodoprotein by the in vivo treatment of hogs with iodide for various lengths of time. The iodine content of thyroglobulin was either unchanged by short term administration of excess iodide, or somewhat lowered. However, the iodine content as well as the total amount of thyroglobulin increased in the glands enlarged by prolonged treatment with iodide. The iodine highest reached 1.17% of the protein on an average. On the other hand, 27-S iodoprotein decreased and finally disappeared after the chronic treatment. Monoiodotyrosine and diiodotyrosine increased in parallel with the increase in the iodine content (0.15 to 1.17%) caused by the iodide treatment, while thyroxine increased but reached a plateau at the level of three residues per mole of thyroglobulin, and no change was observed even in the proteins with the higher iodine content than 0.75%. Proteolytic activity measured by amino acid release from the thyroid protein was depressed by the chronic treatment. On the other hand, the amount of iodocompound released by the autoproteolysis, which may reflect hormone secretion, increased, possibly because of the marked increase in the iodine content of thyroglobulin. (+info
INTRATHYROIDAL IODINE METABOLISM IN THE RAT. THE INFLUENCE OF DIET AND THE ADMINISTRATION OF THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE.
1. Ratios of mono[(131)I]iodotyrosine and di[(131)I]iodotyrosine (R values) and the incorporation of (131)I into iodothyronines have been estimated in rat thyroid glands from 30min. to 38hr. after the administration of [(131)I]iodide. 2. In rats receiving a powdered low-iodine diet the R values were close to unity and did not change with time after the administration of [(131)I]iodide. In rats receiving a commercial pellet diet the R values fell from a mean of 0.8 at 30min. after [(131)I]iodide administration to 0.49 at 38hr. 3. Administration of 0.5-2.0i.u. of thyroid-stimulating hormone before giving the injection of [(131)I]iodide caused a small diminution in the R value when the time between injecting [(131)I]iodide and killing the animal was 16hr. or more. 4. Iodothyronines represented a greater percentage of the total thyroid-gland radioactivity in the iodine-deficient animals than in animals fed on the pellet diet. Thyroid-stimulating hormone had little effect, if any, on the iodothyronine contents. (+info
Studies on experimental iodine allergy: 1. Antigen recognition of guinea pig anti-iodine antibody.
It has generally been thought that iodine allergy is cross-sensitive to various iodine-containing chemicals. However, this concept seems to deviate from the immunological principle that immune recognition is specific. To solve this contradiction, we hypothesize that iodine allergy is an immunological reaction to iodinated autologous proteins produced in vivo by iodination reaction from various iodine-containing chemicals. Antisera to iodine were obtained from guinea pigs immunized subcutaneously with iodine-potassium iodide solution emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). The specificity of guinea pig anti-iodine antiserum was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition experiments using microplates coated with iodinated guinea pig serum albumin (I-GSA). Antibody activities were inhibited by I-GSA, diiodo-L-tyrosine, and thyroxine, but not by potassium iodide, monoiodo-L-tyrosine, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine, monoiodo-L-histidine, or diiodo-L-histidine, or by ionic or non-ionic iodinated contrast media. The results that antigen recognition of anti-iodine antibody is specific to iodinated protein support our hypothesis. While protein iodination usually takes place both at histidine residues as well as at tyrosine residues, only iodinated tyrosine acted as an antigenic determinant and no antibody activities to iodinated histidine were detected in our experimental iodine allergy model. (+info
Studies on experimental iodine allergy: 3. Low molecular weight elicitogenic antigens of iodine allergy.
We hypothesize that iodine allergy is an immune response to iodinated self proteins produced in vivo from various iodine-containing chemicals. Since an antigenic determinant of experimental iodine allergy is diiodotyrosine (DIT), we designed low molecular weight DIT derivatives having provocative antigenicity without sensitizing immunogenicity. Tetraiododityrosine and hexaiodotrityrosine provoked dose-dependent skin reactions in guinea pigs previously immunized with iodine. No guinea pigs immunized with hexaiodotrityrosine showed anaphylactic reaction by i.v. challenge with hexaiodotrityrosine and none of their antisera showed positive passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction in guinea pigs, indicating the non-immunogenic nature of the compound. Erythrosine, one of the color additives having a structure common with DIT, was assessed for its immunological property. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) inhibition studies on erythrosine revealed that the inhibitory activity of erythrosine was stronger than that of DIT. Furthermore, erythrosine provoked a PCA reaction in animals sensitized with anti-iodine antisera. In conclusion, hexaiodotrityrosine is thought to be useful for skin testing of iodine allergy without any fear of sensitization to the allergen. Erythrosine was shown to provoke an experimental iodine allergy and, also, the relationships between the new concept of iodine allergy and features of clinical findings of adverse effects by iodocontrast media are discussed. (+info
Deciphering the peptide iodination code: influence on subsequent gas-phase radical generation with photodissociation ESI-MS.