Evaluation of dopaminergic presynaptic integrity: 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa versus 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine.
The effectiveness of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine (6FMT) to evaluate dopamine presynaptic integrity was compared to that of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa (6FDOPA) in vivo by positron emission tomography (PET). Six normal and six 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys received 6FDOPA and 6FMT PET scans on separate occasions with identical scanning protocols. Four measures, the rate of uptake of tracer into striatum using either the arterial input function (Ki) or the activity in the occipital cortex as the input function (Kc), the rate of loss of striatal radioactivity (k(loss)), and an index of "effective turnover" of dopamine (k(loss)/Ki), were obtained for both tracers during extended PET studies. 6-[18F]Fluoro-L-m-tyrosine was as effective as 6FDOPA in separating normals from MPTP-lesioned subjects on the basis of the uptake rate constants Ki and Kc. However, in contrast to 6FDOPA, it was not possible to differentiate the normal from the lesioned animal using k(loss) or k(loss)/Ki for 6FMT. Thus, FMT appears to be a reasonable, highly specific tracer for studying the activity of aromatic dopa decarboxylase enzyme as an index of presynaptic integrity. However, if one is interested in investigating further the metabolic pathway and obtaining an in vivo estimate of the effective turnover of dopamine (after pharmacologic manipulation, for example), 6FDOPA remains the tracer of choice. (+info)
Increased dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic activities in male rat brain following long-term treatment with anabolic androgenic steroids.
1. The effects of treating groups of rats with four different anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) (testosterone, nandrolone, methandrostenolone, and oxymetholone) on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) neurones in different brain regions were examined. The AAS was injected six times with 1 week's interval and the rats were sacrificed 2 days after the final injection. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), DA and its metabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) were measured. The effect on DA and 5-HT synthesis rate was analysed as the accumulation of 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-alanine (DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), respectively, after inhibition of the amino acid decarboxylase with NSD-1015 (3-hydroxy-benzylhydrazine dihydrochloride). Additionally, the monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity was analysed in the hypothalamus. 2. The DOPAC + HVA/DA ratio was increased in the striatum in all treatment groups. However, the synthesis rate of DA was significantly increased only in the methandrostenolone treated group. 3. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was increased in all treatment groups in the hippocampus, in the frontal cortex in the methandrostenolone-treated animals and in the hypothalamus in the testosterone- and oxymetholone-treated rats, while the 5-HT synthesis rate was not affected by the AAS-treatments. 4. The MAO-A activity was increased in the oxymetholone-treated rats while the other treatment groups were unaffected. The MAO-B activity was not changed. 5. The results indicate that relatively high doses of AAS increase dopaminergic and 5-hydroxytryptaminergic metabolism in male rat brain, probably due to enhanced turnover in these monaminergic systems. (+info)
gamma-L-glutamyl-L-DOPA inhibits Na(+)-phosphate cotransport across renal brush border membranes and increases renal excretion of phosphate.
BACKGROUND: For treatment of phosphate (Pi) overload in various pathophysiological states, an agent that selectively increases renal Pi excretion would be of major value. Previously, we have shown that dopamine (DA) inhibits Na(+)-Pi cotransport in renal epithelia. However, the administration of DA or its immediate precursor L-DOPA increases DA in multiple tissues. Synthetic dipeptide gamma-L-glutamyl-L-DOPA (gludopa) can serve as an inactive precursor (pro-pro-drug) of DA. This study tested the hypothesis that, because of the unique colocalization of gamma-glutamyltransferase (gamma-GT), aromatic amino acid decarboxylase, Na(+)-Pi cotransporter, and Na(+)-L-DOPA cotransporter in brush border membrane (BBM) of proximal tubular cells, gludopa may elicit phosphaturia by action of DA generated within the kidney. METHODS: Thyroparathyrectomized rats were given placebo, or gludopa, or gludopa + gamma-GT inhibitor acivicin. Urinary excretion of Pi, Ca2+, Na+, K+, DA, cAMP, and cGMP was determined, and Na(+)-Pi cotransport was measured in BBM prepared from kidneys of rats at the end of the experiment. RESULTS: The administration of gludopa resulted in: (a) an inhibition of Na(+)-Pi cotransport, but not cotransport of Na(+)-proline and Na(+)-alanine in BBM; (b) an increase (+300%) of fractional excretion (FE) of Pi and a drop (-35%) of plasma Pi, whereas the plasma levels and FEs of Ca2+, Na+, and K+ were unchanged; (c) an increase in urinary excretion of cAMP. but not cGMP; (d) a 1000-fold increase of urinary excretion of DA, without a change in excretion of norepinephrine; and (e) an incubation of gludopa with BBM in vitro, which caused a release of L-DOPA, and the in vivo administration of acivicin, which blocked actions of gludopa to inhibit Na(+)-Pi cotransport and to increase urinary excretions of Pi and DA. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that colocalization of enzymes of biotransformation, BBM transporters, and the autocrine/paracrine DA system in cells of proximal tubules constitutes a cellular basis for the potent and specific phosphaturic action of gludopa. (+info)
Dopamine mediates circadian rhythms of rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina.
A circadian clock modulates the functional organization of the Japanese quail retina. Under conditions of constant darkness, rods dominate electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses at night, and cones dominate them during the day, yielding a circadian rhythm in retinal sensitivity and rod-cone dominance. The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, also exhibits a circadian rhythm in the retina with approximately threefold higher levels during the day than at night. The rhythm of tyrosine hydroxylase activity is opposite in phase to the circadian activity of tryptophan hydroxylase, the first enzyme in the melatonin biosynthetic pathway. We tested whether dopamine may be related to the physiological rhythms of the retina by examining the actions of pharmacological agents that effect dopamine receptors. We found that blocking dopamine D2 receptors in the retina during the day mimics the nighttime state by increasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to rod dominance. Conversely, activating D2 receptors at night mimics the daytime state by decreasing the amplitude of the b-wave and shifting the retina to cone dominance. A selective antagonist for D1 dopamine receptors has no effect on retinal sensitivity or rod-cone dominance. Reducing retinal dopamine partially abolishes rhythms in sensitivity and yields a rod-dominated retina regardless of the time of day. These results suggest that dopamine, under the control of a circadian oscillator, has a key role in modulating sensitivity and rod-cone dominance in the Japanese quail retina. (+info)
Statistical parametric mapping with 18F-dopa PET shows bilaterally reduced striatal and nigral dopaminergic function in early Parkinson's disease.
OBJECTIVE: To apply statistical parametric mapping to 18F-dopa PET data sets, to examine the regional distribution of changes in dopaminergic metabolism in early asymmetric Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Thirteen normal volunteers (age 57.7 (SD 16.5) years; four women, nine men ) and six patients (age 50.3 (SD 13.5) years; three women, three men) with asymmetric (right sided) Parkinson's disease were studied. Images from each dynamic dopa PET dataset were aligned and parametric images of 18F-dopa influx (Ki) were created for each subject. The Ki images were transformed into standard stereotactic space. The Ki values of the caudate and putamen on spatially normalised images were compared with the Ki values before normalisation. The application of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) allowed statistical comparison of regional Ki values on a voxel by voxel basis between healthy volunteers and patients with Parkinson's disease. RESULTS: There was a strong correlation between the Ki values before and after spatial normalisation (r=0.898, p=0.0001). Significant decreases in the Ki values were found for the Parkinson's desease group throughout the entire left putamen (p< 0.001) and focally in the dorsal right putamen (p<0.001). Decreased Ki values were also shown bilaterally in the substantia nigra (p< 0.01). CONCLUSION: Using (SPM) and 18F-dopa PET, reductions in both striatal and nigral brain dopaminergic function could be demonstrated in early Parkinson's disease. (+info)
Frontal, midbrain and striatal dopaminergic function in early and advanced Parkinson's disease A 3D [(18)F]dopa-PET study.
We have studied focal changes in dopaminergic function throughout the brain volume in early and advanced Parkinson's disease by applying statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to 3D [(18)F]dopa-PET. Data from seven early hemi-Parkinson's disease and seven advanced bilateral Parkinson's disease patients were compared with that from 12 normal controls. Parametric images of [(18)F]dopa influx rate constant (K(i)(o)) were generated for each subject from dynamic 3D [(18)F]dopa datasets and transformed into standard stereotactic space. Significant changes in mean voxel [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o) values between the normal control group and each Parkinson's disease group were localized with SPM. Conventional region of interest analysis was also applied to comparable regions on the untransformed image datasets. In early left hemi-Parkinson's disease, significant extrastriatal increases in [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o) were observed in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the dorsal midbrain region (P < 0.05, corrected) along with decreases in striatal [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o). In advanced Parkinson's disease, significant extrastriatal decreases in [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o) were observed in the ventral and dorsal midbrain regions (P < 0.05, corrected). No significant changes in [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o) were observed in the anterior cingulate region. In a direct comparison between the early and late Parkinson's disease groups, we observed relative [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o) reductions in ventral and dorsal midbrain, and dorsal pontine regions along with striatal [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o) reductions. Similiar results were found with a region of interest approach, on non-transformed data, except for the focal midbrain [(18)F]dopa K(i)(o) increase seen in early Parkinson's disease. In conclusion, using SPM with [(18)F]dopa-PET, we have objectively localized changes in extrastriatal, pre-synaptic dopaminergic function in Parkinson's disease. The significance of the increased dopaminergic activity of anterior cingulate in early Parkinson's disease remains unclear, but may be compensatory. The [(18)F]dopa signal in dorsal midbrain and pontine regions suggests that [(18)F]dopa is taken up by serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons which also degenerate in advanced Parkinson's disease. This suggests, therefore, that Parkinson's disease is a monoaminergic neurodegenerative disorder. (+info)
Induction of apoptosis of monocyte-macrophage lineage cells by 5-S-GAD.
We found that 5-S-GAD, an insect-derived antibacterial peptide, inhibited murine osteoclast formation in vitro. We examined the specific time point of the inhibitory action of 5-S-GAD on osteoclast formation and found that it mainly suppressed differentiation of osteoclasts in the middle of the culture period. Using HL60 cells that are able to differentiate into multinucleated macrophage-like cells, we found that 5-S-GAD induced apoptosis of HL60 cells by producing H(2)O(2). Thus, the inhibition of osteoclast formation by 5-S-GAD could be, in part, due to apoptosis of the cells of an osteoclast lineage. (+info)
Human pharmacokinetics of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine studied with microdialysis.
BACKGROUND: Intravenous and subcutaneous microdialysis was performed to compare the free concentrations and pharmacokinetics of L-3, 4-dihyroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in blood and tissue in healthy subjects and in patients with Parkinson disease. METHODS: Nine healthy volunteers and 10 patients with Parkinson disease, stage 1. 5-2 according to the Hoehn-Yahr rating scale, took part of the study. In the patient group subcutaneous microdialysis and ordinary blood sampling were performed, whereas in the control group intravenous microdialysis was also performed. Microdialysis samples were collected in fractions of 15 min. The first two fractions were collected for analysis of basal concentrations. A blood sample was also taken. The patients were then given one tablet of Madopar((R)) (100 mg of L-dopa and 25 mg of benserazide), and the microdialysis was continued for another 210 min. Blood samples were obtained at 30-min intervals. RESULTS: The serum samples gave a significantly higher mean area under the curve (AUC; 491 +/- 139 micromol. min/L) than that for intravenous dialysates (235 +/- 55.3 micromol. min/L), suggesting a protein binding of 50%. The L-dopa concentrations from the subcutaneous dialysates matched those from the intravenous dialysates, indicating rapid distribution of L-dopa to the tissues. CONCLUSIONS: Parkinsonian patients in early stages of the disease have a pharmacokinetic pattern of free L-dopa similar to that of healthy subjects. Comparison of AUCs from microdialysis with ordinary serum analysis revealed data indicating significant protein binding. Microdialysis is a suitable and easily applied tool in pharmacokinetic studies. (+info)