(1/115) Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate. (+info)
(2/115) The glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and monoacylglycerol pathways of glycerolipid synthesis in rat adipose-tissue homogenates.
1. Fat-free homogenates from the epididymal fat-pads of rats were used to measure the rate of palmitate esterification with different substrates. The effectiveness of the acyl acceptors decreased in the order glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate, 2-octadecenyl-glycerol and 2-hexadecylglycerol. 2. Glycerol phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate inhibited their rates of esterification in a mutually competitive manner. 3. The esterification of glycerol phosphate was also inhibited in a partially competitive manner by 2-octadecenylglycerol and to a lesser extent by 2-hexadecylglycerol. However, glycerol phosphate did not inhibit the esterification of 2-octadecenylglycerol. 4. The esterification of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 2-hexadecylglycerol was more sensitive to inhibition by clofenapate than was that of glycerol phosphate. Norfenfluramine was more effective in inhibiting the esterification of 2-hexadecylglycerol than that of glycerol phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate. 5 It is concluded that rat adipose tissue can synthesize glycerolipids by three independent routes. (+info)
(3/115) The effects of diet on the esterification of glycerol phosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate and 2-hexadecylglycerol by homogenates of rat adipose tissue.
1. Male rats were fed for 5 weeks after weaning on a diet containing (by weight) 59% of starch or on diets that contained 39% of starch and 20% of either sucrose, beef tallow or corn oil. 2. The rats fed on the beef tallow consumed more energy than did the rats fed on the starch and sucrose diets. The rats fed on the corn oil drank less water than did the other groups of rats. 3. There were no significant differences between the four groups in terms of body-weight gain, epididymal-fat-pad weight and in the size, number and triacylglycerol content of the adipocytes in the fat-pads. 4. There was a significant correlation (P less than 0.001) between the activities of glycerol phosphate acyltransferase and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase in individual rats. Both of these activities were highest in the group fed on the high-starch diet and both correlated with the consumption of glucose by individual rats in the four groups. 5. The percentage of glycerol phosphate converted into diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol was positively correlated with the mean diameters, surface area and triacylglycerol content of the adipocytes for individual rats and was greates in the sucrose-fed rats. 6. The specific activity of dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase was highest in the rats fed on beef tallow. This activity was positively correlated with the energy intake for all dietary groups over the 5-week feeding period. 7. The results are discussed in terms of the functions of the three routes of glycerolipid synthesis in adipose tissue. (+info)
(4/115) A functional arginine residue in rabbit-muscle aldolase.
Rabbit muscle aldolase is irreversibly modified by the arginine-selective alpha-dicarbonyl, phenylglyoxal, loss of activity correlating with the unique modifications of one arginine residue per subunit, as determined by amino acid analysis, and (7-14C)phenylglyoxal incorporation. The affinity of the modified enzyme for dihydroxyacetone phosphate is significantly reduced while substantial protection against inactivation is afforded by fructose 1,6-disphosphate, dihydroxyacetone phosphate or phosphate ion. The nature of the substrate C-1 phosphate binding site in this enzyme is discussed in the light of these and other results. (+info)
(5/115) Magnetic resonance detects metabolic changes associated with chemotherapy-induced apoptosis.
Apoptosis was induced by treating L1210 leukaemia cells with mechlorethamine, and SW620 colorectal cells with doxorubicin. The onset and progression of apoptosis were monitored by assessing caspase activation, mitochondrial transmembrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation and cell morphology. In parallel, 31P magnetic resonance (MR) spectra of cell extracts were recorded. In L1210 cells, caspase activation was detected at 4 h. By 3 h, the MR spectra showed a steady decrease in NTP and NAD, and a significant build-up of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate (F-1,6-P) dihydroxyacetonephosphate and glycerol-3-phosphate, indicating modulation of glycolysis. Treatment with iodoacetate also induced a build-up of F-1,6-P, while preincubation with two poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, 3-aminobenzamide and nicotinamide, prevented the drop in NAD and the build-up of glycolytic intermediates. This suggested that our results were due to inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, possibly as a consequence of NAD depletion following poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activation. Doxorubicin treatment of the adherent SW620 cells caused cells committed to apoptosis to detach. F-1,6-P was observed in detached cells, but not in treated cells that remained attached. This indicated that our observations were not cell line- or treatment-specific, but were correlated with the appearance of apoptotic cells following drug treatment. The 31P MR spectrum of tumours responding to chemotherapy could be modulated by similar effects. (+info)
(6/115) Phosphatidic acid, a key intermediate in lipid metabolism.
Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) is a key intermediate in glycerolipid biosynthesis. Two different pathways are known for de novo formation of this compound, namely (a) the Gro3P (glycerol 3-phosphate) pathway, and (b) the GrnP (dihydroxyacetone phosphate) pathway. Whereas the former route of PtdOH synthesis is present in bacteria and all types of eukaryotes, the GrnP pathway is restricted to yeast and mammalian cells. In this review article, we describe the enzymes catalyzing de novo formation of PtdOH, their properties and their occurrence in different cell types and organelles. Much attention has recently been paid to the subcellular localization of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of PtdOH. In all eukaryotic cells, microsomes (ER) harbour the complete set of enzymes catalyzing these pathways and are thus the usual organelle for PtdOH formation. In contrast, the contribution of mitochondria to PtdOH synthesis is restricted to certain enzymes and depends on the cell type. In addition, chloroplasts of plants, lipid particles of the yeast, and peroxisomes of mammalian cells are significantly involved in PtdOH biosynthesis. Redundant systems of acyltransferases, the interplay of organelles, regulation of the pathway on the compartmental level, and finally the contribution of alternative pathways (phosphorylation of diacylglycerol and cleavage of phospholipids by phospholipases) to PtdOH biosynthesis appear to be required for the balanced formation of this important lipid intermediate. Dysfunction of enzymes involved in PtdOH synthesis can result in severe defects of various cellular processes. In this context, the possible physiological role(s) of PtdOH and its related metabolites, lysophosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol, will be discussed. (+info)
(7/115) Enhanced association of mutant triosephosphate isomerase to red cell membranes and to brain microtubules.
In a Hungarian family with triosephosphate isomerase (TPI; D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate keto-isomerase, EC 22.214.171.124) deficiency, two germ-line identical, but phenotypically differing compound heterozygote brothers (one of them with neurological disorder) have been identified with the same very low (<5%) TPI activity and 20- or 40-fold higher erythrocyte dihydroxyacetone phosphate levels as compared with normal controls. Our present studies with purified TPI and hemolysates revealed the binding of TPI, and the binding of human wild-type and mutant TPIs in hemolysate, to the red cell membrane, and the interference of binding with other hemolysate proteins. The binding of the mutant TPI is enhanced as compared with the wild-type enzyme. The increased binding is influenced by both the altered structure of the mutant and the changes in the red cell membrane. Compared with binding of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, the isomerase binding is much less sensitive to ionic strength or blocking of the N-terminal tail of the band-3 transmembrane protein. The binding of TPIs to the membrane decreases the isomerase activity, resulting in extremely high dihydroxyacetone phosphate levels in deficient cells. In cell-free brain extract, tubulin copolymerizes with TPI and with other cytosolic proteins forming highly decorated microtubules as shown by immunoblot analysis with anti-TPI antibody and by electron microscopic images. The efficacy order of TPI binding to microtubules is propositus > brother without neurological disorder > normal control. This distinct microcompartmentation of mutant proteins may be relevant in the development of the neurodegenerative process in TPI deficiency and in other, more common neurological diseases. (+info)
(8/115) Alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase. Presence and role of flavin adenine dinucleotide.
Alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase is a peroxisomal enzyme involved in ether lipid synthesis. It catalyzes the exchange of the acyl chain in acyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate for a long chain fatty alcohol, yielding the first ether linked intermediate, i.e. alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate, in the pathway of ether lipid biosynthesis. Although this reaction is not a net redox reaction, the amino acid sequence of the enzyme suggested the presence of a flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-binding domain. In this study we show that alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase contains an essential FAD molecule as cofactor, which is evidenced by fluorescence properties, UV-visible absorption spectra and the observation that the enzyme activity is dependent on the presence of this cofactor in a coupled in vitro transcription/translation assay. Furthermore, we could demonstrate that the FAD cofactor directly participates in catalysis. Upon incubation of the enzyme with the substrate palmitoyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate, the flavin moiety is reduced, indicating that in this initial step the substrate is oxidized. Stopped flow experiments show that the reduction of the flavin moiety is a monophasic process yielding a oxygen stable, reduced enzyme species. Upon addition of hexadecanol to the reduced enzyme species, the flavin moiety is efficiently reoxidized. A hypothetical reaction mechanism is proposed that is consistent with the data in this paper and with previous studies. (+info)