(1/86) Stimulation of hepatic glycogen synthesis by amino acids.
Hepatocytes isolated from livers of fasted rats form little glycogen from glucose or lactate at concentrations below 20 mM. Glycogen is formed in substantial quantities at a glucose concentration of 60 mM. In the presence of 10 mM glucose, 20-30% as much glycogen as glucose is formed from fructose, sorbitol, or dihydroxyacetone. The addition of either glutamine, alanine, or asparagine stimulates the formation of glycogen from lactate 10- to 40-fold. The formation of glucose and glycogen is then about equal, and glycogen deposition in hepatocytes is similar to rates attained in vivo after fasted rats are refed. The amino acids stimulate 1.5- to 2-fold glycogen synthesis from fructose, and 2- to 4-fold synthesis from dihyDROXYACETONE. Ammonium chloride is about one-half as effective as amino acids in stimulating glycogen synthesis when glucose with lactate are substrates. It increased glycogen synthesis 25-50% from fructose but inhibited synthesis from dihydroxyacetone plus glucose. (+info)
(2/86) Glycerol dissimilation in Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.
Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides followed a diauxic growth curve when grown on a malate-glycerol medium, the first phase of growth being supported by malate and the second by glycerol. A soluble glycerokinase and a particulate, pyridine nucleotide-independent glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, were induced by the presence of glycerol in the medium, but neither was fully expressed nor functional until all malate had been consumed. (+info)
(3/86) Exogenous Mg-ATP induces a large inhibition of pyruvate kinase in intact rat hepatocytes.
Mg-ATP infusion in vivo has been reported to be beneficial both to organ function and survival rate in various models of shock. Moreover, a large variety of metabolic effects has been shown to occur in several tissues due to purinergic receptor activation. In the present work we studied the effects of exogenous Mg-ATP in rat liver cells perifused with dihydroxyacetone to investigate simultaneously gluconeogenetic and glycolytic pathways. We found a significant effect on oxidative phosphorylation as characterized by a decrease in oxygen consumption rate and in the cellular ATP-to-ADP ratio associated with an increase in lactate-to-pyruvate ratio. In addition, exogenous Mg-ATP induced rapid and reversible inhibition of both gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The main effect on gluconeogenesis was located at the level of the fructose cycle, whereas the decrease in glycolysis was due to a strong inhibition of pyruvate kinase. Although pyruvate kinase inhibition induced by exogenous Mg-ATP was allosteric when assessed in vitro after enzyme extraction, we found a large decrease in the apparent maximal velocity when kinetics were assessed in vivo in intact perifused hepatocytes. This newly described short-term regulation of pyruvate kinase occurs only in the intact cell and may open new potentials for the pharmacological regulation of pyruvate kinase in vivo. (+info)
(4/86) A high-sucrose diet increases gluconeogenic capacity in isolated periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes.
A high-sucrose (SU) diet increases gluconeogenesis (GNG) in the liver. The present study was conducted to determine the contribution of periportal (PP) and perivenous (PV) cell populations to this SU-induced increase in GNG. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed an SU (68% sucrose) or starch (ST, 68% starch) diet for 1 wk, and hepatocytes were isolated from the PP or PV region of the liver acinus. Hepatocytes were incubated for 1 h in the presence of various gluconeogenic substrates, and glucose release into the medium was used to estimate GNG. When incubated in the presence of 5 mM lactate, which enters GNG at the level of pyruvate, glucose release (nmol x h(-1) x mg(-1)) was significantly increased by the SU diet in both PP (84.8 +/- 3.4 vs. 70.4 +/- 2.6) and PV (64.3 +/- 2.5 vs. 38.2 +/- 2.1) cells. Addition of palmitate (0.5 mM) increased glucose release from lactate in PP cells by 11.6 +/- 0.5 and 20.6 +/- 1.5% and in PV cells by 11.0 +/- 4.4 and 51.1 +/- 9.1% in SU and ST, respectively. When cells were incubated with 5 mM dihydroxyacetone (DHA), which enters GNG at the triosephosphate level, glucose release was significantly increased by the SU diet in both cell types. In contrast, glucose release from fructose (0.5 mM) was significantly increased by the SU diet in PV cells only. These changes in glucose release were accompanied by significant increases in the maximal specific activities of glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in both PP and PV cells. These data suggest that the SU diet influences GNG in both PP and PV cell populations. It appears that SU feeding produces changes in GNG via alterations in at least two critical enzymes, G-6-Pase and PEPCK. (+info)
(5/86) Glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis is activated by glucagon in a low temperature-sensitive manner.
Glucagon affects liver glucose metabolism mainly by activating glycogen breakdown and by inhibiting pyruvate kinase, whereas a possible effect on glucose-6-phosphatase has also been suggested. Although such a target is of physiological importance for liver glucose production it was never proven. By using a model of liver cells, perifused with dihydroxyacetone, we show here that the acute stimulation of gluconeogenesis by glucagon (10(-7) m) was not related to the significant inhibition of pyruvate kinase but to a dramatic activation of the hydrolysis of glucose 6-phosphate. We failed to find an acute change in glucose-6-phosphatase activity by glucagon, but the increase in glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis was abolished at 21 degrees C; conversely the effect on pyruvate kinase was not affected by temperature. The activation of glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis by glucagon was confirmed in vivo, in postabsorptive rats receiving a constant infusion of glucagon, by the combination of a 2-fold increase in hepatic glucose production and a 60% decrease in liver glucose 6-phosphate concentration. Besides the description of a novel effect of glucagon on glucose 6-phosphate hydrolysis by a temperature-sensitive mechanism, this finding could represent an important breakthrough in the understanding of type II diabetes, because glucose 6-phosphate is proposed to be a key molecule in the transcriptional effect of glucose. (+info)
(6/86) Mitochondrial metabolism sets the maximal limit of fuel-stimulated insulin secretion in a model pancreatic beta cell: a survey of four fuel secretagogues.
The precise metabolic steps that couple glucose catabolism to insulin secretion in the pancreatic beta cell are incompletely understood. ATP generated from glycolytic metabolism in the cytosol, from mitochondrial metabolism, and/or from the hydrogen shuttles operating between cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments has been implicated as an important coupling factor. To identify the importance of each of these metabolic pathways, we have compared the fates of four fuel secretagogues (glucose, pyruvate, dihydroxyacetone, and glycerol) in the INS1-E beta cell line. Two of these fuels, dihydroxyacetone and glycerol, are normally ineffective as secretagogues but are enabled by adenovirus-mediated expression of glycerol kinase. Comparison of these two particular fuels allows the effect of redox state on insulin secretion to be evaluated since the phosphorylated products dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glycerol phosphate lie on opposite sides of the NADH-consuming glycerophosphate dehydrogenase reaction. Based upon measurements of glycolytic metabolites, mitochondrial oxidation, mitochondrial matrix calcium, and mitochondrial membrane potential, we find that insulin secretion most tightly correlates with mitochondrial metabolism for each of the four fuels. In the case of glucose stimulation, the high control strength of glucose phosphorylation sets the pace of glucose metabolism and thus the rate of insulin secretion. However, bypassing this reaction with pyruvate, dihydroxyacetone, or glycerol uncovers constraints imposed by mitochondrial metabolism, each of which attains a similar maximal limit of insulin secretion. More specifically, we found that the hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, related to the proton export from the mitochondrial matrix, correlates well with insulin secretion. Based on these findings, we propose that fuel-stimulated secretion is in fact limited by the inherent thermodynamic constraints of proton gradient formation. (+info)
(7/86) Effect of 3-mercaptopicolinic acid on gluconeogenesis and gluconeogenic metabolite concentrations in the isolated perfused rat liver.
3-Mercaptopicolinic acid inhibited gluconeogenesis from lactate and alanine, but not dihydroxyacetone, in the perfused rat liver. Hepatic metabolite concentrations suggested that gluconeogenesis was inhibited at phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. The compound is very effective at low concentrations, and seems an ideal agent for use in studying metabolic regulation involving gluconeogenesis and anaplerotic mechanisms. (+info)
(8/86) Dihydroxyacetone kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are involved in detoxification of dihydroxyacetone.
The genes YML070W/DAK1 and YFL053W/DAK2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae were characterized by a combined genetic and biochemical approach that firmly functionally classified their encoded proteins as dihydroxyacetone kinases (DAKs), an enzyme present in most organisms. The kinetic properties of the two isoforms were similar, exhibiting K(m)((DHA)) of 22 and 5 microm and K(m)((ATP)) of 0.5 and 0.1 mm for Dak1p and Dak2p, respectively. We furthermore show that their substrate, dihydroxyacetone (DHA), is toxic to yeast cells and that the detoxification is dependent on functional DAK. The importance of DAK was clearly apparent for cells where both isogenes were deleted (dak1 Delta dak2 Delta), since this strain was highly sensitive to DHA. In the opposite case, overexpression of either DAK1 or DAK2 made the dak1 Delta dak2 Delta highly resistant to DHA. In fact, overexpression of either DAK provided cells with the capacity to grow efficiently on DHA as the only carbon and energy source, with a generation time of about 5 h. The DHA toxicity was shown to be strongly dependent on the carbon and energy source utilized, since glucose efficiently suppresses the lethality, whereas galactose or ethanol did so to a much lesser extent. However, this suppression was found not to be explained by differences in DHA uptake, since uptake kinetics revealed a simple diffusion mechanism with similar capacity independent of carbon source. Salt addition strongly aggravated the DHA toxicity, independent of carbon source. Furthermore, the DHA toxicity was not linked to the presence of oxygen or to the known harmful agents methylglyoxal and formaldehyde. It is proposed that detoxification of DHA may be a vital part of the physiological response during diverse stress conditions in many species. (+info)