Potent suppression of the parathyroid glands by hydroxylated metabolites of dihydrotachysterol(2).
BACKGROUND: Dihydrotachysterol(2), a licensed pharmaceutical, is hydroxylated to 25-hydroxydihydrotachysterol(2) (25(OH)DHT(2)) and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxydihydrotachysterol(2) (1 alpha,25(OH)(2)DHT(2)) in man. We have compared the biological activity of these metabolites with calcitriol and the 'non-calcaemic' analogue, 22-oxacalcitriol (OCT) in bovine parathyroid cell cultures and in rats. METHODS: The effect of each sterol on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secreted by primary bovine parathyroid cells was measured. High-performance liquid chromotography and gas chromotography-mass spectrometry were used to investigate in vitro 25(OH)DHT(2) metabolism. Rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection or five daily injections of each sterol, and changes in ionized calcium and PTH were measured. RESULTS: In vitro, all sterols suppressed PTH significantly. Calcitriol and OCT were of similar potency, but 1 alpha, 25(OH)(2)DHT(2) and 25(OH)DHT(2) required higher concentrations to suppress PTH equally. We were unable to detect metabolism of 25(OH)DHT(2) to 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)DHT(2) in vitro. In rats, a single dose of 0.5 microg/rat of calcitriol increased ionized calcium at 30 and 40 h (statistically significant at 48 h). 50 microg of OCT and 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)DHT(2) did not cause significant hypercalcaemia at 48 h, although 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)DHT(2) caused hypercalcaemia at 30 h. In contrast, 50 microg of 25(OH)DHT(2) caused hypercalcaemia at 48 h but not at 30 h. Five daily doses of 0.001 microg/rat of calcitriol caused a significant rise in calcium and a 50% fall in PTH. OCT and 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)DHT(2) at 0.025 and 0.5 microg/rat respectively caused similar suppression of PTH but without hypercalcaemia. CONCLUSION: 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)DHT(2) and 25(OH)DHT(2) are potent suppressors of PTH in vitro and in vivo. 25(OH)DHT(2) may be active by virtue of its pseudo-1 alpha-hydroxyl group. Hypercalcaemia caused by a single dose of 1 alpha,25(OH)(2)DHT(2) appeared to be more transient than calcitriol. Five daily doses of 1 alpha, 25(OH)(2)DHT(2) and OCT could achieve 50% suppression of PTH without significant increments in ionized calcium. In contrast, suppression of PTH by calcitriol was associated with significant increments in ionized calcium. These data suggest that like OCT, 1 alpha, 25(OH)(2)DHT(2) can dissociate calcaemic actions from parathyroid-suppressing actions in a manner that may be therapeutically useful. (+info)
Immobilization hypercalcaemia in patients on regular haemodialysis.
Immobilization of normal people causes reabsorption of calcium from bone, a small rise in serum ionized calcium, and, rarely, frank hypercalcaemia. The hazard is increased when patients with renal osteodystrophy are immobilized because of pathological fractures. (+info)
Hypophosphataemic osteomalacia in patients receiving haemodialysis.
Four patients had symptomless osteomalacia at the time of starting regular haemodialysis. After 21-40 months they became hypophosphataemic and developed disabling skeletal symptoms. In each case an exacerbation of histological osteomalacia was shown. Symptoms improved after measures designed to raise serum inorganic phosphate concentrations or vitamin D administration, or both. Patients undergoing maintenance haemodialysis should have their serum phosphate and alkaline phosphatase levels monitored every month. Predialysis phosphate levels below 1 mmol/1 (3 mg/100 ml) and rising serum alkaline phosphatase concentrations are danger signals. If the diagnosis is confirmed early aggressive treatment should be started. (+info)
The effect of phenylbutazone upon dihydrotachysterol overdosage in the rat.
Experiments on albino rats showed that short-term overdosage with dihydrotachysterol, in amounts causing only traces of soft-tissue calcification, induced a very pronounced calcium deposition in the heart, aorta, and kidney when the animals were simultaneously treated with phenylbutazone. Special attention is called to the fact that, under these experimental conditions, it is possible to obtain consistently a massive calcium deposition in the stroma of the renal papilla similar to that seen in "Randall's plaques" during the development of urolithiasis in man. (+info)
EFFECT OF CHEMICAL THYMECTOMY ON SKIN HOMOGRAFTS. A PRELIMINARY REPORT.
In an attempt to combine the results obtained by Miller (mice thymectomized at birth accepted homograft at six weeks of age) and those obtained by Selye (selective calcification of the cortex of the thymus with calciphylaxis), calcification of the thymus was produced by the combined injection of dihydrotachysterol and triamcinolone, in non-inbred Sprague-Dawley and hooded, eight-week-old rats. Six days after the beginning of treatment, full-thickness skin homografts were performed on the rats.Homografts exchanged between two rats with complete calcification of the thymus cortex were accepted for an extended period of time, which in the oldest rats at the time of writing was seven months. Homografts exchanged between rats with incomplete calcification of the thymus resulted in a prolonged homograft survival with final rejection within a period of three weeks. Homografts exchanged between rats that were not treated, surgically thymectomized at the same age as the treated animals, or treated with only one of the two substances used for thymus calcification, resulted in rejection in the average time of eight days. (+info)
Prevalence and correction of 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency in peritoneal dialysis patients.
BACKGROUND: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are at risk for 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency due to effluent loss in addition to traditional risk factors. OBJECTIVES: To measure 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency in prevalent PD patients, to evaluate a replacement dose, and to determine the effects of correction. METHODS: 25(OH) vitamin D levels were drawn on prevalent PD patients. Patients deficientin 25(OH) vitamin D were given ergocalciferol, 50000 IU orally once per week for 4 weeks. Patients scored muscle weakness, bone pain, and fatigue on a scale of 0 (none) to 5 (severe). Serum calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 25(OH) vitamin D, and 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels were obtained before and after treatment. RESULTS: 25(OH) vitamin D levels were measured in 29 PD patients. Deficiency (<15 ng/mL) was found in 28/29 (97%); 25/29 (86%) had undetectable levels (<7 ng/mL). One course of ergocalciferol corrected the deficiency in all but 1 patient, who required a second course. Scores for muscle weakness and bone pain fell from pre- to posttreatment (p < 0.001). 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels rose post ergocalciferol (from 20 to 26 pg/mL, n = 20, p = 0.09). Serum calcium, phosphate, and PTH levels did not change with ergocalciferol. CONCLUSIONS: Most PD patients had marked 25(OH) vitamin D deficiency, which was readily and safely corrected with one course of 50000 IU ergocalciferol, having no effect on serum calcium, phosphorus, or PTH, but complaints of muscle weakness and bone pain decreased. A prospective, placebo-controlled double-blinded study is needed to determine whether replacement of 25(PH) vitamin D is beneficial in PD patients. (+info)
1,25(OH)(2)D(3) blocks TNF-induced monocytic tissue factor expression by inhibition of transcription factors AP-1 and NF-kappaB.
An essential coagulation factor, tissue factor (TF), is rapidly expressed by human monocytes when exposed to a variety of agonists, such as lipopolysaccharide or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). We previously found that 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) and its potent synthetic analogs downregulate TF and upregulate thrombomodulin expression on monocytic cells, counteracting the effects of TNF at the level of transcription. The human TF gene has characteristic binding sequences for activator protein-1 (AP-1) (c-Jun/c-Fos), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), Sp-1, and early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1). In this study, we investigated the regulatory mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibits TNF-induced TF expression in human monocytic cells. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced basal and TNF-induced TF activities. Gel-shift assay and luciferase assay with the respective reporter vectors showed that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) reduced basal and TNF-induced activities of the nuclear proteins AP-1 and NF-kappaB, but not Egr-1. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) inhibited TNF-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun without affecting phosphorylation of the other pathways. On the other hand, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) directly inhibited nuclear binding and activities of NF-kappaB in the nucleus without affecting phosphorylation of the NF-kappaB activation pathway. These results indicate that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) suppresses basal and TNF-induced TF expression in monocytic cells by inhibition of AP-1 and NF-kappaB activation pathways, but not of Egr-1. Our results may help to elucidate the regulatory mechanisms of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) in TF induction, and may have physiological significance in the clinical challenge to use potential 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) analogs in antithrombotic therapy as well as immunomodulation and antineoplastic therapy of leukemia. (+info)
Coefficients for active transport and thermogenesis of Ca2+-ATPase isoforms.