High-resolution PET imaging for in vivo monitoring of tumor response after photodynamic therapy in mice.
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) and a small-animal PET scanner to assess early tumor response after photodynamic therapy (PDT) in mice. PDT consists of intravenous administration of a photosensitizer that accumulates preferentially in tumor tissue, followed by local illumination of the tumor with red light. Two different photosensitizers were used: Photofrin (PII), which has been approved for clinical use, and disulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS), which is a second-generation drug. These drugs have been shown to induce tumor necrosis through different action mechanisms, i.e., mainly initial vascular stasis (PII) or direct tumor cell kill (AIPcS). FDG PET was used to follow both perfusion and metabolic activity in the tumor tissue. METHODS: The study was performed using a mouse model implanted with two contralateral murine mammary tumors (5 mm diameter x 2.5 mm thickness) on the back. Only one tumor was subjected to PDT, whereas the other tumor served as a control. A total of 13 mice were studied, 1 without illumination, 3 at 30 min and 3 at 2 h after PDT with both PII-PDT and AIPcS-PDT. Dynamic PET imaging of the mice, which were placed in pairs in a prostate position parallel to the transaxial planes of the Sherbrooke animal PET scanner, was performed after a bolus injection of 11 MBq (300 microCi) FDG. Blood samples were collected concurrently from 1 mouse during each study using an automated microvolumetric blood sampler. RESULTS: Analysis of the tumor time-activity curves showed that (a) scans during the first 3 min provided an estimate of tumor perfusion, as confirmed by the blood samples; (b) the tumor FDG uptake after 15 min was a direct measurement of tumor metabolism clearly demonstrating the relative efficacy of the two PDT drugs; and (c) the tumor tracer concentration in the interval 3-15 min after FDG injection is an appropriate indicator of the different mechanisms of tumor necrosis through indirect vascular stasis (PII) or direct cell kill (AIPcS). CONCLUSION: This pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using dynamic in vivo PET imaging for assessing early tumor response to PDT in mice. (+info)
Short- and long-term normal tissue damage with photodynamic therapy in pig trachea: a fluence-response pilot study comparing Photofrin and mTHPC.
The damage to normal pig bronchial mucosa caused by photodynamic therapy (PDT) using mTHPC and Photofrin as photosensitizers was evaluated. An endobronchial applicator was used to deliver the light with a linear diffuser and to measure the light fluence in situ. The applied fluences were varied, based on existing clinical protocols. A fluence finding experiment with short-term (1-2 days) response as an end point showed considerable damage to the mucosa with the use of Photofrin (fluences 50-275 J cm(-2), drug dose 2 mg kg(-1)) with oedema and blood vessel damage as most important features. In the short-term mTHPC experiment the damage found was slight (fluences 12.5-50 J cm(-2), drug dose 0.15 mg kg(-1)). For both sensitizers, atrophy and acute inflammation of the epithelium and the submucosal glands was observed. The damage was confined to the mucosa and submucosa leaving the cartilage intact. A long-term response experiment showed that fluences of 50 J cm(-2) for mTHPC and 65 J cm(-2) for Photofrin-treated animals caused damage that recovered within 14 days, with sporadic slight fibrosis and occasional inflammation of the submucosal glands. Limited data on the pharmacokinetics of mTHPC show that drug levels in the trachea are similar at 6 and 20 days post injection, indicating a broad time window for treatment. The importance of in situ light dosimetry was stressed by the inter-animal variations in fluence rate for comparable illumination conditions. (+info)
Photodynamic therapy of atherosclerosis using YAG-OPO laser and Porfimer sodium, and comparison with using argon-dye laser.
We performed photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the Yttrium Aluminium Garnet-Optical Parametric Oscillated (YAG-OPO) laser in cases of atherosclerosis, and examined its efficacy in vivo. We also performed PDT using an Argon-dye (Ar-dye) laser with the same output, and compared the efficacies. Following balloon denudation injury of the thoracoabdominal aorta, rabbits were raised on a cholesterol diet for 16 weeks, producing atheroma in that region. At 24 h following the administration of Photofrin 5 mg/kg, PDT was performed, and animals were sacrificed at 1 day, 1 week, and 2 weeks following the procedure to examine its efficacy. This was compared with the efficacy of PDT using the Ar-dye laser. Following PDT using a YAG-OPO laser, an increase in the vessel lumen was seen due to reduction of the hypertrophic intima and media, without the appearance of inflammatory cells. This result was seen more strongly in PDT using the pulse wave YAG-OPO laser than with the continuous wave Ar-dye laser, affecting not just the intima but also the media. These data demonstrated that PDT can effectively regress atherosclerotic lesions. (+info)
Photofrin-mediated photodynamic therapy induces vascular occlusion and apoptosis in a human sarcoma xenograft model.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves light activation of a photosensitizer, resulting in oxygen-dependent, free radical-mediated cell death. Little is known about the efficacy of PDT in treating human sarcomas, despite an ongoing clinical trial treating i.p. sarcomatosis. The present study evaluates PDT treatment of a human sarcoma xenograft in nude mice and explores the mechanism of PDT-mediated antitumor effect. Athymic nude mice, 6-8 weeks of age, were s.c. injected with 5 x 10(6) cells of the A673 human sarcoma cell line. Tumors were allowed to grow to a diameter of about 10 mm. Photofrin (PF), 10 mg/kg, was injected by tail vein, and 24 h later, 630 nm light was delivered to the tumor with fluences of 50, 100, 150, or 300 J/cm2 at a fluence rate of 250 mW/cm2. To assess the efficacy of PDT in the treatment of sarcomas, photosensitizer uptake/retention studies and dose-response studies were performed. Studies carried out to determine the mechanism of tumor response included tumor temperature measurements before, during, and after treatment; tumor vascular perfusion studies with laser Doppler; electron microscopic analysis of tumor sections for vascular occlusion; and analysis of tumor cryosections for endothelial cell damage, apoptosis, and necrosis. At all time points of analysis, photosensitizer levels were greater in tumor than in muscle. Dose-response studies showed that at 100 J/cm2, five of six mice had a complete response to treatment, one of six had a partial response, and no deaths occurred. Temperature measurements indicated that thermal injury did not contribute to tumor response. Vascular perfusion studies demonstrated a significant reduction in blood flow as early as 6 h after PDT. Electron micrographs revealed erythrostasis in tumor microvessels starting as early as 2 h after treatment and complete occlusion of blood vessels by 12 h. Starting as early as 4 h after PDT, apoptosis first appeared in endothelial cells lining the occluded blood vessels and became more widespread at later time points. PDT is an effective treatment for this human sarcoma xenograft in nude mice. The mechanism of tumor destruction in this model appears to be vascular damage with initial apoptosis in tumor endothelial cells and delayed tumor cell apoptosis. This therapy may be valuable in the treatment of patients with sarcomatosis. (+info)
Ultrasound imaging of apoptosis: high-resolution non-invasive monitoring of programmed cell death in vitro, in situ and in vivo.
A new non-invasive method for monitoring apoptosis has been developed using high frequency (40 MHz) ultrasound imaging. Conventional ultrasound backscatter imaging techniques were used to observe apoptosis occurring in response to anticancer agents in cells in vitro, in tissues ex vivo and in live animals. The mechanism behind this ultrasonic detection was identified experimentally to be the subcellular nuclear changes, condensation followed by fragmentation, that cells undergo during apoptosis. These changes dramatically increase the high frequency ultrasound scattering efficiency of apoptotic cells over normal cells (25- to 50-fold change in intensity). The result is that areas of tissue undergoing apoptosis become much brighter in comparison to surrounding viable tissues. The results provide a framework for the possibility of using high frequency ultrasound imaging in the future to non-invasively monitor the effects of chemotherapeutic agents and other anticancer treatments in experimental animal systems and in patients. (+info)
Efficacy and safety of photodynamic therapy versus Nd-YAG laser resection in NSCLC with airway obstruction.
A prospective controlled randomized trial was performed in order to assess the effectiveness and safety of photodynamic therapy versus laser resection in 31 patients with partial or complete tracheobronchial obstruction due to inoperable non-small cell lung cancer. Fourteen patients received dihaematoporphyrin ether and argon dye laser photoradiation, and 17 patients received Nd-YAG laser resection. Endoluminal obstruction of >75% was found in 77.4% of the patients. Among the symptoms, cough was more severe in the Nd-YAG group (p=0.02). Patients in both groups experienced symptomatic relief after treatment (p=0.003). Patients in the photodynamic therapy (PDT) group showed a significantly longer time until treatment failure (p=0.03) and longer median survival (p=0.007). Bronchitis and photosensitization (both in the PDT group) were the most common adverse effects. There was one death, probably related to treatment, in the PDT group. Photodynamic therapy and neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet laser resection showed similar effectiveness and safety in the palliation of symptoms. The more prolonged survival in the photodynamic therapy group may have been due to differences in tumour stage between the groups. The degree of obstruction improved after treatment in both groups. In conclusion, photodynamic therapy is a valid method of palliation in partially or totally obstructing non-small cell lung carcinoma. (+info)
Photofrin photodynamic therapy can significantly deplete or preserve oxygenation in human basal cell carcinomas during treatment, depending on fluence rate.
At high fluence rates in animal models, photodynamic therapy (PDT) can photochemically deplete ambient tumor oxygen through the generation of singlet oxygen, causing acute hypoxia and limiting treatment effectiveness. We report that standard clinical treatment conditions (1 mg/kg Photofrin, light at 630 nm and 150 mW/cm2), which are highly effective for treating human basal cell carcinomas, significantly diminished tumor oxygen levels during initial light delivery in a majority of carcinomas. Oxygen depletion could be found during at least 40% of the total light dose, but tumors appeared well oxygenated toward the end of treatment. In contrast, initial light delivery at a lower fluence rate of 30 mW/cm2 increased tumor oxygenation in a majority of carcinomas. Laser treatment caused an intensity- and treatment time-dependent increase in tumor temperature. The data suggest that high fluence rate treatment, although effective, may be inefficient. (+info)
Photodynamic therapy-mediated oxidative stress as a molecular switch for the temporal expression of genes ligated to the human heat shock promoter.
Oxidative stress associated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a transcriptional inducer of genes encoding stress proteins, including those belonging to the heat shock protein (hsp) family. The efficiency of PDT to function as a molecular switch by initiating expression of heterologous genes ligated to the human hsp promoter was examined in the present study. Selective and temporal reporter gene expression was documented after PDT in mouse radiation-induced fibrosarcoma cells stably transfected with recombinant vectors containing an hsp promoter ligated to either the lac-z or CAT reporter genes and in transfected radiation-induced fibrosarcoma tumors grown in C3H mice. Hyperthermia treatments were included as a positive control for all experiments. Expression vectors containing either human p53 or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha cDNA under the control of an hsp promoter were also constructed and evaluated. A p53 null and TNF-alpha-resistant human ovarian carcinoma (SKOV-3) cell line was stably transfected with either the p53 or TNF-alpha constructs. Inducible expression and function of p53 as well as inducible expression, secretion, and biological activity of TNF-alpha were documented after PDT or hyperthermia in transfected SKOV cells. These results demonstrate that PDT-mediated oxidative stress can function as a molecular switch for the selective and temporal expression of heterologous genes in tumor cells containing expression vectors under the control of an hsp promoter. (+info)