Primary laparoscopic-assisted endorectal colon pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease: a new gold standard.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the surgical technique and early clinical results after a one-stage laparoscopic-assisted endorectal colon pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Recent trends in surgery for Hirschsprung's disease have been toward earlier repair and fewer surgical stages. A one-stage pull-through for Hirschsprung's disease avoids the additional anesthesia, surgery, and complications of a colostomy. A laparoscopic-assisted approach diminishes surgical trauma to the peritoneal cavity. METHODS: The technique uses four small abdominal ports. The transition zone is initially identified by seromuscular biopsies obtained laparoscopically. A colon pedicle preserving the marginal artery is fashioned endoscopically. The rectal mobilization is performed transanally using an endorectal sleeve technique. The anastomosis is performed transanally 1 cm above the dentate line. This report discusses the outcome of primary laparoscopic pull-through in 80 patients performed at six pediatric surgery centers over the past 5 years. RESULTS: The age at surgery ranged from 3 days to 96 months. The average length of the surgical procedure was 2.5 hours. Almost all of the patients passed stool and flatus within 24 hours of surgery. The average time for discharge after surgery was 3.7 days. All 80 patients are currently alive and well. Most of the children are too young to evaluate for fecal continence, but 18 of the older children have been reported to be continent. CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic-assisted colon pull-through appears to reduce perioperative complications and postoperative recovery time dramatically. The technique is quickly learned and has been performed in multiple centers with consistently good results. (+info)
Gastrointestinal surgical workload in the DGH and the upper gastrointestinal surgeon.
Workload implications of upper gastrointestinal (UGI) subspecialisation within the district general hospital (DGH) have been assessed by prospective data collection over a 12-month period in a DGH with six general surgeons serving a population of 320,000. The single UGI surgeon (UGIS) performed all ten oesophageal resections, ten of 11 gastric resections for malignancy and all eight pancreatic operations. He also performed 91 of the 182 cholecystectomies, 164 of the 250 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatograms (ERCP) and all endoscopic procedures for the palliation of unresected oesophageal tumours. The UGIS was responsible for the management of all patients with severe pancreatitis, yet he also performed 51 colorectal resections over the 12-month period. Successful management of severely ill patients with upper GI disease requires consultant supervision on a day-to-day basis. If such UGI disease is to be managed in the DGH, two surgeons with UGI experience will be required if high quality care and reasonable working conditions are to be achieved. Such UGIS will continue to perform some colorectal surgery. (+info)
Role of the surgical trainee in upper gastrointestinal resectional surgery.
The 'New Deal' set out by the Department of Health in 1991, together with the introduction of specialist 6-year training grades by Calman in 1993, has resulted in a decrease in available training time for surgeons in the UK. There is also an emerging belief that surgical procedures performed by trainees might compromise patient outcome. This study examines the level of trainee experience in a specialist gastrointestinal unit and whether operation by a trainee surgeon adversely affects patient outcome. All patients in the University Department of Surgery, Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, undergoing oesophagogastric, hepatic or pancreatic resection between January 1994 and December 1996 were entered into the study. The early clinical outcome (in-hospital mortality and morbidity, considered in three groups: anastomotic leak, other technique-related complications and non-technique-related complications) was evaluated with regard to the grade of surgeon (consultant or trainee) performing the operation. Of the 222 patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal resection during the study period, 100 (45%) were operated on by trainees. Trainees were assisted and closely supervised by consultants in all but six resections. There was no major difference in mortality rate (consultant, 4.1% vs trainee, 5%), incidence of non-technique-related complications (consultant, 6.7% vs trainee, 7.1%), anastomotic leaks (consultant, 10.7% vs trainee, 5%) or technique-related complications (consultant, 18.9% vs trainee, 15%) between the two grades of surgeon. In a specialist unit, the early clinical outcome of patients undergoing major upper gastrointestinal resection by supervised trainees is no worse than in those operated on by consultants. Participation of trainees in such complex procedures enhances surgical training and does not jeopardise patient care. (+info)
Results of surgical treatment (modified Sugiura-Futagawa operation) of portal hypertension associated to complete splenomesoportal thrombosis and cirrhosis.
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic portal hypertension, secondary to both intrahepatic and extrahepatic portal hypertension, is an uncommon entity. In this condition, the extrahepatic and the intrahepatic obstruction of the portal vein, due to chronic liver disease, produce a more severe form of hemorrhagic portal hypertension that is more difficult to control. The results of surgical treatment (modified Sugiura-Futagawa operation) in this subset of patients is analyzed. METHODS: Among 714 patients with a history of hemorrhagic portal hypertension, 14 cases were found with histologically proven liver cirrhosis and complete splenomesoportal thrombosis demonstrated by means of preoperative angiography. Patients with incomplete (partial) splenomesoportal thrombosis were excluded. There were nine males and 5 females with a mean age of 51 years. Alcoholic cirrhosis was demonstrated in 50% of the cases, post hepatitic cirrhosis in 28%, primary biliary cirrhosis in 7%, and cryptogenic cirrhosis in 14%. There were nine Child-Pugh A and 5 B cases. All cases were treated by means of our modified Sugiura-Futagawa procedure. RESULTS: Bleeding recurrence from esophagogastric varices was shown in one case, colonic varices in one case and hypertensive gastropathy in another of the survivors. Post operative encephalopathy was shown in 3 of the cases. The thirty-six month survival rate was 30% (Kaplan-Meier). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of intrahepatic plus extrahepatic portal hypertension has a worse prognosis. Treatment options are limited (sclerotherapy and/or devascularization), because shunt surgery, TIPS and liver transplantation have a very restricted role and postoperative outcome is poor. (+info)
Surgical management of calcified hydatid cysts of the liver.
Hydatid disease of the liver is still a major cause of morbidity in Greece. Beside the common complications of rupture and suppuration, calcification of the hepatic cysts represent a not well studied, less frequent and sometimes difficult surgical problem. In the present study 75 cases with calcified symptomatic liver echinococcosis were operated on in the 1st Propedeutic Surgical Clinic between 1964 to 1996. Twenty-eight patients were male and 47 female with ages from 23 to 78 years. The diagnosis was based mainly on the clinical picture and radiological studies. In 5 cases the operative method was cystopericystectomy. We performed evacuation of the cystic cavity and partial pericystectomy and primary closure of the residual cavity in 6 cases, omentoplasty or filling of the residual cavity with a piece of muscle of the diaphragm in 4 cases and external drainage by closed tube, in 60 cases. In 12 of those with drainage, after a period of time, a second operation with easy, removal of most of the calcareous wall plaques was performed. The mortality rate was 2%. Our results could be considered satisfactory. In the calcified parasitic cysts of the liver the proposed technique is cystopericystectomy. An alternative procedure is pericystectomy and drainage with a "planned" reoperation with a bloodless, due to intervening inflammation, chiseling of the calcification. (+info)
Hospital volume can serve as a surrogate for surgeon volume for achieving excellent outcomes in colorectal resection.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of surgeon and hospital case volumes with the short-term outcomes of in-hospital death, total hospital charges, and length of stay for resection of colorectal carcinoma. METHODS: The study design was a cross-sectional analysis of all adult patients who underwent resection for colorectal cancer using Maryland state discharge data from 1992 to 1996. Cases were divided into three groups based on annual surgeon case volume--low (< or =5), medium (5 to 10), and high (>10)--and hospital volume--low (<40), medium (40 to 70), and high (> or =70). Poisson and multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify differences in outcomes among volume groups while adjusting for variations in type of resections performed, cancer stage, patient comorbidities, urgency of admission, and patient demographic variables. RESULTS: During the 5-year period, 9739 resections were performed by 812 surgeons at 50 hospitals. The majority of surgeons (81%) and hospitals (58%) were in the low-volume group. The low-volume surgeons operated on 3461 of the 9739 total patients (36%) at an average rate of 1.8 cases per year. Higher surgeon volume was associated with significant improvement in all three outcomes (in-hospital death, length of stay, and cost). Medium-volume surgeons achieved results equivalent to high-volume surgeons when they operated in high- or medium-volume hospitals. CONCLUSIONS: A skewed distribution of case volumes by surgeon was found in this study of patients who underwent resection for large bowel cancer in Maryland. The majority of these surgeons performed very few operations for colorectal cancer per year, whereas a minority performed >10 cases per year. Medium-volume surgeons achieved excellent outcomes similar to high-volume surgeons when operating in medium-volume or high-volume hospitals, but not in low-volume hospitals. The results of low-volume surgeons improved with increasing hospital volume but never equaled those of the high-volume surgeons. (+info)
Safety and efficacy of low anterior resection for rectal cancer: 681 consecutive cases from a specialty service.
OBJECTIVE: To determine perioperative morbidity, survival, and local failure rates in a large group of consecutive patients with rectal cancer undergoing low anterior resection by multiple surgeons on a specialty service. The primary objective was to assess the surgical complications associated with preoperative radiation sequencing. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The goals in the treatment of rectal cancer are cure, local control, and preservation of sphincter, sexual, and bladder function. Surgical resection using sharp perimesorectal dissection is important for achieving these goals. The complications and mortality rate of this surgical strategy, particularly in the setting of preoperative chemoradiation, have not been well defined. METHODS: There were 1233 patients with primary rectal cancer treated at the authors' cancer center from 1987 to 1995. Of these, 681 underwent low anterior resection and/or coloanal anastomosis for primary rectal cancer. The surgical technique used the principles of sharp perimesorectal excision. Morbidity and mortality rates were compared between patients receiving preoperative chemoradiation (Preop RT, n = 150) and those not receiving preoperative chemoradiation (No Preop RT, n = 531). Recurrence and survival data were determined in patients undergoing curative resection (n = 583, 86%) among three groups of patients: those receiving Preop RT (n = 131), those receiving postoperative chemoradiation (Postop RT, n = 110), and those receiving no radiation therapy (No RT, n = 342). RESULTS: The perioperative mortality rate was 0.6% (4/681). Postoperative complications occurred in 22% (153/681). The operative time, estimated blood loss, and rate of pelvic abscess formation without associated leak were higher in the Preop RT group than the No Preop RT group. However, the overall complication rate, rate of wound infection, anastomotic leak, and length of hospital stay were no different between Preop RT and No Preop RT patients. With a median follow-up of 45.6 months, the overall actuarial 5-year recurrence rate for patients undergoing curative resection (n = 583) was 19%, with 4% having local recurrence only, 12% having distant recurrence, and 3% having both local and distant recurrence, for an overall local recurrence rate of 7%. The actuarial 5-year overall survival rate was 81%; the disease-free survival rate was 75% and the local recurrence rate was 10%. The overall survival rate was similar between Preop RT (85%), Postop RT (72%), and No RT (83%) patients (p = 0.10), whereas the disease-free survival rate was significantly worse for Postop RT (65%) patients compared with Preop RT (79%) and No RT (77%) patients (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The use of preoperative chemoradiation results in increased operative time, blood loss, and pelvic abscess formation but does not increase the rate of anastomotic leaks or the length of hospital stay after low anterior resection for rectal cancer. The 5-year actuarial overall survival rate for patients undergoing curative resection exceeded 80%, with a local recurrence rate of 10%. (+info)
Laparoscopic exploration in the management of retroperitoneal masses.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The isolated finding of a retroperitoneal mass (RM) often represents a diagnostic challenge. Image-guided biopsy is frequently inadequate for diagnosis. With increasing experience, the use of laparoscopy for exploration of an indeterminate RM may provide a minimally invasive alternative to open exploration. Herein, we present a retrospective review of our initial four laparoscopic explorations, comparing our experience to four contemporary open explorations for an RM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From July 1995 to January 1998, four patients, aged 50 to 62 years old, with an RM of undetermined etiology underwent laparoscopic exploration. Another four patients underwent open exploration at the same hospital. The medical records of these patients were reviewed. RESULTS: The tumors were smaller in the laparoscopic group, averaging 3.7 cm (range 2-6 cm) vs 6.5 cm (range 1-10 cm) in the open group. A definitive diagnosis was obtained for all eight patients. Postoperative complications were observed in one of the laparoscopic explorations, and in three of the open explorations; there was no operative mortality. The blood loss (90 vs 440 ml), fall in hematocrit (5.1 vs 7.8%), time to resumption of a regular diet (3 vs 5 days), amount of morphine sulfate equivalents required for analgesia (128 mg vs 161 mg), time to ambulation (2.3 vs 6 days) and hospital stay (4.8 vs 6 days) were all less among the laparoscopy patients. However, the operative time was longer for the laparoscopic procedure; this time included stent placement and patient repositioning in addition to the time for laparoscopic excision of the mass (7.8 vs 4.3 hours). CONCLUSION: Laparoscopic exploration appears to be a viable alternative to open exploration in patients presenting with a retroperitoneal mass. It is as effective as an open procedure and provides benefits with regard to patient morbidity and convalescence. However, operative time for this laparoscopic procedure is lengthy. (+info)