Apparent ileal and total-tract nutrient digestion by pigs as affected by dietary nondigestible oligosaccharides.
The effects of two types of nondigestible oligosaccharides (NDO), fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and transgalactooligosaccharides (TOS) were studied on growing and weanling pigs' nutrient digestion. Dietary NDO were included at the expense of purified cellulose. Twenty-five 57-d-old growing pigs, averaging 15.9+/-.6 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a corn-based control diet or the control with 6.8 or 13.5 g of FOS/kg or 4.0 or 8.0 g of TOS/kg (five pigs per diet). Feces were collected on d 28 to 32, and small-intestinal digesta were collected (slaughter technique) on d 42 to 47 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, and crude fiber. Dietary NDO did not significantly affect apparent fecal and small intestinal digestion of nutrients in growing pigs. After being fed a NDO-free diet through d 10 after weaning, 38-d-old weanling pigs (n = 20), averaging 10.4+/-.8 kg on d 0 of the experiment, were fed a control diet (based on cornstarch, casein, and oat husk meal) or the control with 10 or 40 g of FOS or TOS/kg (four pigs per diet). Feces and urine were collected on d 13 to 17, and ileal digesta were collected via a postvalve T-cecum cannula on d 33 to 37 of the experiment. Feeds, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, inorganic matter, CP, ether extract, starch, NDF, ADF, ADL, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn. Nonstarch neutral-detergent soluble carbohydrates (NNSC) completed the mass balance for the carbohydrates. Urine was analyzed for N and minerals. The apparent fecal digestion of NNSC increased in the NDO-supplemented diets. The TOS-fed pigs tended (P<.10) to have a higher apparent fecal digestion of CP than the FOS-fed and control pigs but excreted more N via the urine (P<.01). Nitrogen and mineral balances were not affected. The FOS was nearly completely degraded prececally. Mean fiber digestion was lower at the fecal compared with the ileal level, as was the extent of NDO effects. This indicates that fiber digestion requires more than 2 wk to adapt to dietary NDO. Apparent ileal digestion of hemicellulose increased for the NDO-supplemented diets (P<.05), but that of NNSC decreased (P<.001). Thus, under the well-controlled conditions of this experiment, dietary NDO hardly affected nutrient digestion in well-kept growing and weanling pigs. However, digestion of dietary nonstarch carbohydrates may be affected. (+info)
Passive exchanges during water vapour absorption in mealworms (Tenebrio molitor): a new approach to studying the phenomenon.
The weights of single mealworms were continuously recorded at 20 degrees C during exposure to periods of constant humidity and to abrupt changes in atmospheric vapour pressure. Two exchange stages were recognized in each animal. Weight changes were either limited to slow losses, suggesting transpiration through the external cuticle, or showed more rapid humidity-dependent gains as well as losses. Rapid exchanges indicated that water was gained or lost through permeable barriers, from a fluid compartmet of significantly lower vapour pressure than the haemolymph, equivalent to about 90% R.H. Weight gains and losses during humidity changes provided evidence of a significant, passively exchanging fluid compartment located between the exchange surface and absorbing mechanism. Weight changes in faecal pellets following their elimination provide further support for a rectal site of atmospheric absorption. (+info)
Noninvasive measurement of anatomic structure and intraluminal oxygenation in the gastrointestinal tract of living mice with spatial and spectral EPR imaging.
EPR imaging has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive three-dimensional (3D) spatial mapping of free radicals in biological tissues. Spectral-spatial EPR imaging enables mapping of the spectral information at each spatial position, and, from the observed line width, the localized tissue oxygenation can be mapped. We report the development of EPR imaging instrumentation enabling 3D spatial and spectral-spatial EPR imaging of small animals. This instrumentation, along with the use of a biocompatible charcoal oximetry-probe suspension, enabled 3D spatial imaging of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, along with mapping of oxygenation in living mice. By using these techniques, the oxygen tension was mapped at different levels of the GI tract from the stomach to the rectum. The results clearly show the presence of a marked oxygen gradient from the proximal to the distal GI tract, which decreases after respiratory arrest. This technique for in vivo mapping of oxygenation is a promising method, enabling the noninvasive imaging of oxygen within the normal GI tract. This method should be useful in determining the alterations in oxygenation associated with disease. (+info)
Gastrointestinal responses to a panel of lectins in rats maintained on total parenteral nutrition.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) causes atrophy of gastrointestinal epithelia, so we asked whether lectins that stimulate epithelial proliferation can reverse this effect of TPN. Two lectins stimulate pancreatic proliferation by releasing CCK, so we asked whether lectins that stimulate gastrointestinal proliferation also release hormones that might mediate their effects. Six rats per group received continuous infusion of TPN and a once daily bolus dose of purified lectin (25 mg. rat-1. day-1) or vehicle alone (control group) for 4 days via an intragastric cannula. Proliferation rates were estimated by metaphase arrest, and hormones were measured by RIAs. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) increased proliferation by 90% in the gastric fundus (P < 0.05), doubled proliferation in the small intestine (P < 0.001), and had a small effect in the midcolon (P < 0.05). Peanut agglutinin (PNA) had a minor trophic effect in the proximal small intestine (P < 0.05) and increased proliferation by 166% in the proximal colon (P < 0.001) and by 40% in the midcolon (P < 0.001). PNA elevated circulating gastrin and CCK by 97 (P < 0.05) and 81% (P < 0.01), respectively, and PHA elevated plasma enteroglucagon by 69% and CCK by 60% (both P < 0.05). Only wheat germ agglutinin increased the release of glucagon-like peptide-1 by 100% (P < 0.05). PHA and PNA consistently reverse the fall in gastrointestinal and pancreatic growth associated with TPN in rats. Both lectins stimulated the release of specific hormones that may have been responsible for the trophic effects. It is suggested that lectins could be used to prevent gastrointestinal atrophy during TPN. Their hormone-releasing effects might be involved. (+info)
Aquaporin water channels in gastrointestinal physiology.
Fluid transport is a major function of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with more than 9 litres of fluid being absorbed or secreted across epithelia in human salivary gland, stomach, the hepatobiliary tract, pancreas, small intestine and colon. This review evaluates the evidence that aquaporin-type water channels are involved in GI fluid transport. The aquaporins are a family of small ( approximately 30 kDa) integral membrane proteins that function as water channels. At least seven aquaporins are expressed in various tissues in the GI tract: AQP1 in intrahepatic cholangiocytes, AQP4 in gastric parietal cells, AQP3 and AQP4 in colonic surface epithelium, AQP5 in salivary gland, AQP7 in small intestine, AQP8 in liver, pancreas and colon, and AQP9 in liver. There are functional data suggesting that some GI cell types expressing aquaporins have high or regulated water permeability; however, there has been no direct evidence for a role of aquaporins in GI physiology. Recently, transgenic mice have been generated with selective deletions of various aquaporins. Preliminary evaluation of GI function suggests a role for AQP1 in dietary fat processing and AQP4 in colonic fluid absorption. Further study of aquaporin function in the GI tract should provide new insights into normal GI physiology and disease mechanisms, and may yield novel therapies to regulate fluid movement in GI diseases. (+info)
Electrophysiological and morphological heterogeneity of rat dorsal vagal neurones which project to specific areas of the gastrointestinal tract.
1. The electrophysiological properties of rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurones (n = 162) were examined using whole cell patch clamp recordings from brainstem slices. Recordings were made from DMV neurones whose projections to the gastrointestinal tract had been identified by previously applying fluorescent retrograde tracers to the gastric fundus, corpus or antrum/pylorus, or to the duodenum or caecum. 2. The neuronal groups were markedly heterogeneous with respect to several electrophysiological properties. For example, neurones which projected to the fundus had a higher input resistance (400 +/- 25 Momega), a smaller and shorter after-hyperpolarization (16.7 +/- 0.49 mV and 63.5 +/- 3.9 ms) and a higher frequency of action potential firing (19.3 +/- 1.4 action potentials s-1) following injection of depolarizing current (270 pA) when compared with caecum-projecting neurones (302 +/- 22 Momega; 23. 5 +/- 0.87 mV and 81.1 +/- 5.3 ms; 9.7 +/- 1.1 action potentials s-1; P < 0.05 for each parameter). Differences between neuronal groups were also apparent with respect to the distribution of several voltage-dependent potassium currents. Inward rectification was present only in caecum-projecting neurones, for example. 3. Neurones (n = 82) were filled with the intracellular stain Neurobiotin allowing post-fixation morphological reconstruction. Neurones projecting to the caecum had the largest cell volume (5238 +/- 535 microm3), soma area (489 +/- 46 microm2) and soma diameter (24.6 +/- 1.24 microm) as well as the largest number of dendritic branch segments (23 +/- 2). 4. In summary, these results suggest that DMV neurones are heterogeneous with respect to some electrophysiological as well as some morphological properties and can be divided into subgroups according to their gastrointestinal projections. (+info)
Stimulation of the paraventricular nucleus modulates the activity of gut-sensitive neurons in the vagal complex.
There is good evidence that stimulation of the lateral hypothalamus excites neurons in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), but the data regarding the role of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in vagal function are less clear. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of PVN stimulation on the activity of neurons in the DVC. We utilized extracellular and intracellular neuronal recordings with intracellular injections of a neuronal tracer to label individual, physiologically characterized neurons in the DVC of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. Most (80%) of the gut-sensitive dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) neurons characterized in this study exhibited a change in activity during electrical stimulation of the PVN. Stimulation of the PVN caused an increase in the spontaneous activity of 59% of the PVN-sensitive DMNV neurons, and the PVN was capable of modulating the response of a small subset of DMNV neurons to gastrointestinal stimuli. This study also demonstrated that the PVN was capable of influencing the activity of neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST). Electrical stimulation of the PVN decreased the basal activity of 66% of the NST cells that we characterized and altered the gastrointestinal response of a very small subset of NST neurons. It is likely that these interactions play a role in the modulation of a number of gut-related homeostatic processes. Increased or decreased activity in the descending pathway from the PVN to the DVC has the potential to alter ascending satiety signals, modulate vago-vagal reflexes and the cephalic phase of feeding, and affect the absorption of nutrients from the gastrointestinal tract. (+info)
Increase in intake with sham feeding experience is concentration dependent.
Most sham feeding studies show that about three sham feeding tests are required for intake to reach maximum. One study, however, using a dilute solution, reported maximum sham intake in the first sham feeding test, suggesting that the progressive rise in sham intake may be concentration dependent. We tested this hypothesis with six groups of rats given five sham feeding tests each with one of six concentrations of sweetened condensed milk (0.5:1, 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, 8:1, 16:1, water-to-milk dilutions). It took three sham tests for intake to reach maximum with the three most concentrated solutions, but only one with the three weakest. Thus the intake of concentrated solutions of milk is limited by two negative feedback signals, one derived from the accumulation of fluid in the gastrointestinal tract, the other from a labile signal that loses its effectiveness with sham feeding experience. In contrast, the intake of weak concentrations is limited only by the nonlabile negative feedback signal because the labile signal is missing. (+info)