Combined effects of diethylpropion and alcohol on locomotor activity of mice: participation of the dopaminergic and opioid systems.
The widespread consumption of anorectics and combined anorectic + alcohol misuse are problems in Brazil. In order to better understand the interactive effects of ethanol (EtOH) and diethylpropion (DEP) we examined the locomotion-activating effects of these drugs given alone or in combination in mice. We also determined whether this response was affected by dopamine (DA) or opioid receptor antagonists. A total of 160 male Swiss mice weighing approximately 30 g were divided into groups of 8 animals per group. The animals were treated daily for 7 consecutive days with combined EtOH + DEP (1.2 g/kg and 5.0 mg/kg, ip), EtOH (1.2 g/kg, ip), DEP (5.0 mg/kg, ip) or the control solution coadministered with the DA antagonist haloperidol (HAL, 0.075 mg/kg, ip), the opioid antagonist naloxone (NAL, 1.0 mg/kg, ip), or vehicle. On days 1, 7 and 10 after the injections, mice were assessed in activity cages at different times (15, 30, 45 and 60 min) for 5 min. The acute combination of EtOH plus DEP induced a significantly higher increase in locomotor activity (day 1: 369.5 +/- 34.41) when compared to either drug alone (day 1: EtOH = 232.5 +/- 23.79 and DEP = 276.0 +/- 12.85) and to control solution (day 1: 153.12 +/- 7.64). However, the repeated administration of EtOH (day 7: 314.63 +/- 26.79 and day 10: 257.62 +/- 29.91) or DEP (day 7: 309.5 +/- 31.65 and day 10: 321.12 +/- 39. 24) alone or in combination (day 7: 459.75 +/- 41.28 and day 10: 427. 87 +/- 33.0) failed to induce a progressive increase in the locomotor response. These data demonstrate greater locomotion-activating effects of the EtOH + DEP combination, probably involving DA and/or opioid receptor stimulation, since the daily pretreatment with HAL (day 1: EtOH + DEP = 395.62 +/- 11.92 and EtOH + DEP + HAL = 371.5 +/- 6.76; day 7: EtOH + DEP = 502.5 +/- 42.27 and EtOH + DEP + HAL = 281.12 +/- 16.08; day 10: EtOH + DEP = 445.75 +/- 16.64 and EtOH + DEP + HAL = 376.75 +/- 16.4) and NAL (day 1: EtOH + DEP = 553.62 +/- 38.15 and EtOH + DEP + NAL = 445.12 +/- 55.67; day 7: EtOH + DEP = 617.5 +/- 38.89 and EtOH + DEP + NAL = 418.25 +/- 61.18; day 10: EtOH + DEP = 541.37 +/- 32.86 and EtOH + DEP + NAL = 427.12 +/- 51.6) reduced the locomotor response induced by combined administration of EtOH + DEP. These findings also suggest that a major determinant of combined anorectic-alcohol misuse may be the increased stimulating effects produced by the combination. (+info)
Primary pulmonary hypertension after amfepramone (diethylpropion) with BMPR2 mutation.
Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is characterised by sustained elevations of pulmonary arterial pressure without a demonstrable cause, leading to right ventricular failure and death. Hereditary mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II (BMPR2) gene result in familial PPH transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait, albeit with low penetrance. The causes in cases without a BMPR2 mutation are unknown, but a syndrome of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) similar to hereditary PPH is associated with systemic connective tissue disease, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, or with the use of appetite-suppressant drugs. The authors identified a BMPR2 gene mutation in a 27-yr-old female who developed PAH after a short course of the appetite-suppressant drug amfepramone (diethylpropion). This allowed molecular genetic counselling and prevention of potentially harmful drug exposure in the patient's son treated for attention deficit disorder with methylphenidate, an amphetamine-related drug. No BMPR2 mutation was found in four additional, unrelated patients with appetite suppressant-related PPH. The findings provide strong evidence that amfepramone can trigger primary pulmonary hypertension in a bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene mutation carrier, and indicate that other genes are probably implicated in genetic susceptibility to appetite suppressants. (+info)
Weight loss medications--where do they fit in?
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a chronic disease requiring a similar long term approach to management as that of other chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE: This article discusses the role of medications in the overall management of obesity. DISCUSSION: Management needs to be multifaceted, aiming to alter the patient and family micro-environment to one favouring better weight control through sustainable behavioural changes to physical activity and diet. Weight loss medications may provide additional benefit. Currently we have only two medications suitable for long term therapy--orlistat and sibutramine. Sibutramine, which acts centrally to suppress appetite, has shown efficacy for up to 2 years. Orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, reduces fat absorption and has been shown to reduce and maintain weight for up to 4 years. The effect of these medications is modest, generally providing less than 5 kg weight loss when compared with placebo. Patients need to have realistic expectations and understand the benefits of sustained modest weight loss. It is important that weight loss medications are prescribed in combination with lifestyle modification. (+info)
The use of appetite suppressants among health sciences undergraduate students in Southern Brazil.
Ventricular arrhythmias complicating weight reduction therapy in a patient with a prolonged QT interval.
Serious ventricular arrhythmias are known to occur in patients with long QT intervals. We describe a case of torsade de pointes occurring in a patient with a prolonged QT interval while taking a 1000 calorie diet, diethylpropion hydrochloride (Tenuate Dospan) and bendrofluazide. In patients with long QT intervals, hypokalaemia and drugs which further delay repolarization may facilitate the development of life threatening arrhythmias. (+info)
Treatment of obesity: cost-benefit assessment of behavioral therapy, placebo, and two anorectic drugs.
Mazindol, diethylpropion, and a placebo were compared with behavioral therapy for effectiveness in producing weight reduction in an outpatient obesity clinic. Each method was also compared in cost and harmful side effects. The patients were recruited from the middle and lower socioeconomic groups. Of the 120 patients beginning treatment, only 33 completed the entire 14-week study. There was no statistically significant difference in the weight loss among the treatment groups. The program of behavioral therapy was administered by a dietitian who as experienced in the techniques of behavior modification; the drug treatment groups were seen by physicians. We conclude that behavioral therapy may be the treatment of choice in an outpatient obese population since it requires little physician time, is less expensive, and avoids the side effects of anorectic drugs. (+info)
The contribution of increased thermogenesis to the effect of anorectic drugs on body composition in mice.
The study investigated whether changes in body composition of normal and genetically obese C57BL/6J (ob/ob) mice caused by the anorectic drugs phentermine, diethylpropion, fenfluramine, and mazindol are entirely due to reduced food intake. Mice were dosed daily (25 mg/kg po) for 28 days after which time carcass composition was determined. Compared to controls fed at libitum, reductions in food intake were for phentermine, 7%; fenfluramine, 17%; diethylpropion, 17%, whereas reduction in body lipid content were for phentermine, 16%; mazindol, 18%; fenfluramine, 8%; diethylpropion, 10%. Since diet restriction by 22% (in the absence of treatment with any drug) resulted in a body lipid content 12% below that of controls fed ad libitum, these results suggest that some of the lipid loss caused by phentermine and possibly mazindol is due to increased energy expenditure. In support of this conclusion, phentermine and mazindol increased energy expenditure in normal mice by 35% compared to untreated controls in the 6 h after dosing but diethylpropion and fenfluramine had little or no effect. Determination of the carcass composition of the normal mice confirmed that phentermine has a metabolic antiobesity effect. Fenfluramine had an unexpected effect on carcass composition in normal mice. (+info)
Appetite suppressants and primary pulmonary hypertension in the United Kingdom.
OBJECTIVE: Amphetamine-like appetite suppressants, particularly fenfluramines, have been implicated in the aetiology of primary pulmonary hypertension. At one specialist centre in France 20% of patients with primary pulmonary hypertension had been exposed to fenfluramine. The prevalence of primary pulmonary hypertension associated with fenfluramines and other appetite suppressants in the United Kingdom is unknown. This study was performed to measure prior exposure to appetite suppressants in patients with primary pulmonary hypertension. SETTING: Heart lung transplantation centres in England. PATIENTS: United Kingdom residents with proven primary pulmonary hypertension referred for consideration of heart lung transplantation. METHODS: Case surveillance study, obtaining data from the hospital and general practitioner's notes and directly from the patients or their relatives. RESULTS: 55 patients were identified. Drug histories were available from hospital records in all patients, from the general practitioner's notes in 51, and from the patients or relatives in 44. Of these, 3 female patients had been exposed to appetite suppressants (2 fenfluramine, 1 diethylpropion): 2 have since died. In each case exposure was brief and apparently predated the development of symptoms by several years. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure of patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension to fenfluramine and other appetite suppressants is uncommon in the United Kingdom unlike in France, where most of the cases associating primary pulmonary hypertension with fenfluramine use have originated. This may reflect more conservative prescribing of these agents in the United Kingdom. (+info)