(1/1424) Dietary iron and risk of myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study.

Free iron has been implicated in lipid peroxidation and ischemic myocardial damage, and it has been suggested that iron is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction. The authors investigated whether dietary iron is associated with an increased risk of fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction in the Rotterdam Study, a community-based prospective cohort study of 7,983 elderly subjects in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. The study sample consisted of 4,802 participants who at baseline had no known history of myocardial infarction and for whom dietary data were available. From 1990 to 1996, 124 subjects had a myocardial infarction. No association was observed between total iron intake and risk of myocardial infarction after adjustment for age and sex (relative risk for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of intake = 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.45, p for trend = 0.640). Heme iron intake was positively associated with risk of myocardial infarction (relative risk for the highest vs. the lowest tertile of intake = 1.83, 95% CI 1.16-2.91, p for trend = 0.008) after adjustment for age and sex, and this association persisted after multivariate adjustment (relative risk = 1.86, 95% CI 1.14-3.09, p for trend = 0.010). A distinction between fatal and nonfatal cases of myocardial infarction indicated that the association of heme iron with myocardial infarction was more pronounced in fatal cases. The results suggest that a high dietary heme iron intake is related to an increased risk of myocardial infarction and that it may specifically affect the rate of fatality from myocardial infarction.  (+info)

(2/1424) Dietary variety within food groups: association with energy intake and body fatness in men and women.

BACKGROUND: Short-term experimental studies suggest that dietary variety may influence body fatness but no long-term human studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether dietary variety within food groups influences energy intake and body fatness. DESIGN: Seventy-one healthy men and women (aged 20-80 y), who provided accurate reports of dietary intake and completed a body-composition assessment, were studied. RESULTS: Dietary variety was positively associated with energy intake within each of 10 food groups (r = 0.27-0.56, P < 0.05). In multiple regression analysis with age and sex controlled for, dietary variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates (as a group) was positively associated with body fatness (partial r = 0.38, P = 0.001) whereas variety from vegetables was negatively associated (partial r = -0.31, P = 0.01) (R2 = 0.46, P < 0.0001). In separate models, both a variety ratio (variety of vegetables/variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates) and percentage dietary fat were significant predictors of body fatness (controlled for age and sex, partial r = -0.39 and 0.31, respectively, P < 0.01). However, dietary fat was no longer significantly associated with body fatness when the variety ratio and dietary fat were included in the same model. CONCLUSIONS: Our data, coupled with those of previous short-term studies, suggest that a high variety of sweets, snacks, condiments, entrees, and carbohydrates coupled with a low variety of vegetables promotes long-term increases in energy intake and body fatness. These findings may help explain the rising prevalence of obesity.  (+info)

(3/1424) Is whole grain intake associated with reduced total and cause-specific death rates in older women? The Iowa Women's Health Study.

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether nutrient-rich whole grains reduce mortality risk. METHODS: The study included 38,740 Iowa women, aged 55 to 69 years. A food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain data on grain intake. RESULTS: Median whole grain intake quintiles ranged from a median of 0.2 to more than 3 servings per day. Women with higher intakes had healthier lifestyles and less baseline disease. The total death rate decreased in increasing quintiles, and the pattern repeated for cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other causes combined. Adjusted for lifestyle and baseline disease, the relative hazard rate ratio for total death was about 0.85 in daily consumers of whole grain. Findings persisted in strata of baseline healthy and diseased and were not explained by dietary fiber. Rates of total mortality, but not cardiovascular disease mortality, were higher among frequent consumers of refined grain. CONCLUSIONS: Total mortality risk was inversely associated with whole grain intake and positively associated with refined grain intake. Refined grains contributed more than 20% of energy intake, and whole grains contributed 1%. Substitution of whole for refined grain may reduce chronic disease risk in the United States.  (+info)

(4/1424) Genetic effects on weight change and food intake in Swedish adult twins.

BACKGROUND: Obesity is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, synergistic effects of genes and environments may be important in the development of obesity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test for genetic effects on food consumption frequency, food preferences, and their interaction with subsequent weight gain. DESIGN: Complete data on the frequencies of consumption of 11 foods typical of the Swedish diet were available for 98 monozygotic and 176 dizygotic twin pairs aged 25-59 y who are part of the Swedish Twin Registry. The data were collected in 1973 as part of a questionnaire study. Body mass index was measured in 1973 and again in 1984. RESULTS: There was some evidence that genetic effects influenced the frequency of intake of some foods. Similarity among monozygotic twins exceeded that among dizygotic twins for intake of flour and grain products and fruit in men and women, intake of milk in men, and intake of vegetables and rice in women, suggesting that genes influence preferences for these foods. Analyses conducted for twins reared together and apart also suggested greater monozygotic than dizygotic correlations, but cross-twin, cross-trait correlations were all insignificant, suggesting that the genes that affect consumption frequencies are not responsible for mediating the relation between the frequency of intake and weight change. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic effects and the frequency of intake are independently related to change in body mass index. However, there was no suggestion of differential genetic effects on weight gain that were dependent on the consumption frequency of the foods studied.  (+info)

(5/1424) Potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetable intakes are associated with greater bone mineral density in elderly men and women.

BACKGROUND: Osteoporosis and related fractures will be growing public health problems as the population ages. It is therefore of great importance to identify modifiable risk factors. OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between dietary components contributing to an alkaline environment (dietary potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables) and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly subjects. DESIGN: Dietary intake measures were associated with both cross-sectional (baseline) and 4-y longitudinal change in BMD among surviving members of the original cohort of the Framingham Heart Study. Dietary and supplement intakes were assessed by food-frequency questionnaire, and BMD was measured at 3 hip sites and 1 forearm site. RESULTS: Greater potassium intake was significantly associated with greater BMD at all 4 sites for men and at 3 sites for women (P < 0.05). Magnesium intake was associated with greater BMD at one hip site for both men and women and in the forearm for men. Fruit and vegetable intake was associated with BMD at 3 sites for men and 2 for women. Greater intakes of potassium and magnesium were also each associated with less decline in BMD at 2 hip sites, and greater fruit and vegetable intake was associated with less decline at 1 hip site, in men. There were no significant associations between baseline diet and subsequent bone loss in women. CONCLUSION: These results support the hypothesis that alkaline-producing dietary components, specifically, potassium, magnesium, and fruit and vegetables, contribute to maintenance of BMD.  (+info)

(6/1424) Underreporting of habitual food intake is explained by undereating in highly motivated lean women.

Underreporting of habitual food intake can be explained by underrecording and/or undereating. This study was designed to discriminate between the two errors mentioned, by measuring energy and water balance. Twenty-four lean female dieticians were recruited as subjects. Energy intake and water intake were measured for 1 wk with a weighed dietary record. Energy expenditure was estimated from measurements of resting metabolic rate, and measured physical activity with a triaxial accelerometer for movement registration. Water loss was estimated with deuterium-labeled water. Energy balance was determined by measuring the change in body mass over a nonrecording week (preceding the recording week) and over the recording week. Mean energy and water intake were 8.5 +/- 1.0 MJ/d and 2.3 +/- 0.5 L/d. The change in body mass in the nonrecording week was 0.1 +/- 0.6 kg and in the recording week -0.6 +/- 0.8 kg (paired t test; P = 0.02), indicating 16% undereating. Recorded water intake plus calculated metabolic water closely matched measured water loss (r = 0.93; P = 0.0001), which indicated a high recording precision. In conclusion, in the studied group of highly motivated lean women, there was 16% underreporting of habitual food intake, which could be explained by undereating.  (+info)

(7/1424) Fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer in men.

BACKGROUND: Studies in animals have shown that the frequency of urination is inversely associated with the level of potential carcinogens in the urothelium. In humans, an increase in total fluid intake may reduce contact time between carcinogens and urothelium by diluting urinary metabolites and increasing the frequency of voiding. The data on fluid intake in relation to the risk of bladder cancer are inconclusive. METHODS: We examined the relation between total fluid intake and the risk of bladder cancer over a period of 10 years among 47,909 participants in the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. There were 252 newly diagnosed cases of bladder cancer during the follow-up period. Information on total fluid intake was derived from the reported frequency of consumption of the 22 types of beverages on the food-frequency questionnaire, which was completed by each of the 47,909 participants who were free of cancer in 1986. Logistic-regression analyses were performed to adjust for known and suspected risk factors for bladder cancer. RESULTS: Total daily fluid intake was inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer; the multivariate relative risk was 0.51 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.32 to 0.80) for the highest quintile of total daily fluid intake (>2531 ml per day) as compared with the lowest quintile (<1290 ml per day). The consumption of water contributed to a lower risk (relative risk, 0.49 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.86] for > or =1440 ml [6 cups] per day vs. <240 ml [1 cup] per day), as did the consumption of other fluids (relative risk, 0.63 [95 percent confidence interval, 0.39 to 0.99] for >1831 ml per day vs. <735 ml per day). CONCLUSIONS: A high fluid intake is associated with a decreased risk of bladder cancer in men.  (+info)

(8/1424) Foods contributing to absolute intake and variance in intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol in middle-aged Japanese.

On the basis of 351 one-day weighed diet records, we selected foods/recipes contributing to nutrients of interest for a data-based food frequency questionnaire by contribution analysis and multiple regression analysis. Total fat was largely of animal and vegetable origin, irrespective of analytic methods. Saturated fatty acid was mostly from animal and vegetable sources according to contribution analysis, and that of animal origin was the main contributor by multiple regression analysis. Mono-unsaturated fatty acid was substantially supplied by animal and vegetable products by either analytic method. Poly-unsaturated fatty acid, n-6 poly-unsaturated fatty acid and linoleic acid were found to be of vegetable origin and chicken egg according to contribution analysis; while vegetable oil and mayonnaise were the major contributors to variance in intake. Arachidonic acid was, however, mostly provided by animal sources including chicken egg and fish, irrespective of analytic methods. N-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids and alpha-linolenic acid were of vegetable and marine origin. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were particularly from marine products, irrespective of analytic methods, except for chicken egg in docosahexaenoic acid by contribution analysis. Cholesterol was of animal and marine origin by either analytic method. Thus, foods contributing to absolute intake and variance in intake of fat, fatty acids and cholesterol differed considerably.  (+info)