Celiac disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by intolerance to gluten. It is characterized by immune-mediated enteropathy, associated with maldigestion and malabsorption of most nutrients and vitamins. In predisposed individuals, the ingestion of gluten-containing food such as wheat and rye induces a flat jejunal mucosa with infiltration of lymphocytes. The main symptoms are: stomach pain, gas, and bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, anemia, edema, bone or joint pain. Prevalence for clinically overt celiac disease varies from 1:270 in Finland to 1:5000 in North America. Since celiac disease can be asymptomatic, most subjects are not diagnosed or they can present with atypical symptoms. Furthermore, severe inflammation of the small bowel can be present without any gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis should be made early since celiac disease causes growth retardation in untreated children and atypical symptoms like infertility or neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires endoscopy with jejunal biopsy. In addition, tissue-transglutaminase antibodies are important to confirm the diagnosis since there are other diseases which can mimic celiac disease. The exact cause of celiac disease is unknown but is thought to be primarily immune mediated (tissue-transglutaminase autoantigen); often the disease is inherited. Management consists in life long withdrawal of dietary gluten, which leads to significant clinical and histological improvement. However, complete normalization of histology can take years. (+info)
Anti-calreticulin immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies in refractory coeliac disease.
Treatment diets in Estonian health care institutions.
New system and nomenclature of diets for Estonian health care institutions have been developed in the university hospital based on theoretical and practical experience obtained over several years of cooperation with medical scientists from different fields of specialization. The nomenclature of diets includes ordinary food and eight groups of diet food with subgroups. The normative values of the basic nutrients are in accordance with the Estonian and Nordic nutritional recommendations. The whole system includes the menus and recipes of nutritional food portions. The system of treatment diets helps to optimize proper nutrition in different departments and organize better patient care. (+info)
Serological responses to microbial antigens in celiac disease patients during a gluten-free diet.
Celiac disease: pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and associated autoimmune conditions.
The clinical spectrum of celiac disease continues to evolve. What was once thought to be a rare disorder affecting young children is now recognized to be very common with a range of symptoms from asymptomatic disease to severely affected persons. Screening for celiac disease has become relatively easily with reliable antibodies against self-antigens (TG) and modified environmental antigens (DGP). Diagnosis is confirmed by small intestinal biopsy with characteristic changes graded by the Marsh score. Elimination of gluten from the diet has been the standard of care for the last half century. Patients often have difficulty adhering to a gluten-free diet, and the failure of symptoms, antibody levels, or pathologic changes to improve after initiating the diet may be largely due to this difficulty. The genetic risk for celiac disease is largely related to HLA genotypes, with over 90% of subjects with celiac disease positive for DQ2 and the remainder positive for DQ8. The HLA association with celiac disease is largely accountable for its link to other autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease, and the majority of risk for celiac disease in these populations is related to HLA genotype. Celiac disease also carries an increased risk for type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease. Genetic syndromes such as Turner and Down syndromes are associated with an increased risk for celiac disease. Practitioners can identify groups of subjects at high risk for celiac disease and perform screening with celiac disease-related antibodies. (+info)
Imbalances in faecal and duodenal Bifidobacterium species composition in active and non-active coeliac disease.
Home blood testing for celiac disease: recommendations for management.
OBJECTIVE: To provide recommendations for the management of patients who inquire about the Health Canada-approved, self-administered home blood tests for celiac disease or who present with positive test results after using the self-testing kit SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PubMed and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched from January 1985 to April 2008, using the subject headings diagnosis of celiac disease and management or treatment of celiac disease. Guidelines for serologic testing and confirmation of diagnosis of celiac disease by the American Gastroenterological Association and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition are used in this review. Level 1 evidence was used. MAIN MESSAGE: Although blood tests are helpful for screening purposes, the confirmatory test for celiac disease is a small intestinal biopsy. CONCLUSION: Patients whose blood tests for celiac disease provide positive results should have endoscopic small intestinal biopsies to confirm the diagnosis before starting a gluten-free diet. (+info)