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(1/90) Enhancement by adenosine of insulin-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and protein kinase B in rat adipocytes.

The role of adenosine receptor in regulation of insulin-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) and protein kinase B was studied in isolated rat adipocytes. Rat adipocytes are known to spontaneously release adenosine, which in turn binds and stimulates the adenosine A1 receptors on the cells. In the present study, we observed that degradation of this adenosine by adenosine deaminase attenuated markedly the insulin-induced accumulation of phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns(3,4,5)P3), a product of PI 3-kinase. p-Aminophenylacetyl xanthine amine congener (PAPA-XAC), an inhibitor of the adenosine A1 receptor, also inhibited the insulin-induced PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 accumulation. When extracellular adenosine was inactivated by adenosine deaminase, phenylisopropyladenosine, an adenosine A1 receptor agonist, potentiated the insulin-induced accumulation of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3. Insulin-induced activation of protein kinase B, the activity of which is controlled by the lipid products of PI 3-kinase, was also potentiated by adenosine. Prostaglandin E2, another activator of a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein in these cells, potentiated the insulin actions. Thus, the receptors coupling to the GTP-binding protein were found to positively regulate the production of PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, a putative second messenger for insulin actions, in physiological target cells of insulin.  (+info)

(2/90) 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine, lodenosine, in rhesus monkeys: plasma and cerebrospinal fluid pharmacokinetics and urinary disposition.

2'-beta-Fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (F-ddA, lodenosine) is a nucleoside analog that was rationally designed as a more chemically and enzymatically stable anti-AIDS drug than its parent compound 2', 3'-dideoxyadenosine or didanosine. Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pharmacokinetics of this compound and its major metabolite, 2'-beta-fluoro-2',3'-dideoxyinosine (F-ddI), were studied in three rhesus monkeys after a single 20 mg/kg dose administered as an i.v. push. F-ddA exhibited a mean residence time of 0.17 h in plasma and its plasma concentration time profile appeared to be biexponential. The majority of plasma exposure was from F-ddI, with a mean parent drug area under the curve (AUC) to metabolite AUC ratio of 0.16. CSF levels were low, with a mean CSF AUC to plasma AUC ratio of 0.068, with approximately one-quarter of this exposure in CSF due to unchanged drug. Urinary excretion accounted for half of the drug administered with the majority recovered as the metabolite, F-ddI. In a separate experiment, one monkey received a 20 mg/kg i.v. dose of F-ddI. The total dideoxynucleoside plasma exposure was greater than it was after administration of F-ddA; however, the CSF AUC to plasma AUC ratio was a factor of 4 lower (0.017). Thus, F-ddA central nervous system penetration is at least comparable to that of didanosine, indicating that this experimental drug has potential as an addition to currently approved AIDS therapies.  (+info)

(3/90) Effects of adrenomedullin on cyclic AMP formation and on relaxation in iris sphincter smooth muscle.

PURPOSE: To determine whether iris sphincter and other tissues of the iris-ciliary body secrete adrenomedullin (ADM), a novel hypotensive peptide that is classified into the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) family and to determine the binding sites for ADM and compare the effects of ADM and CGRP in the absence and presence of their receptor antagonists on cAMP formation and relaxation in the iris sphincter. METHODS: Sphincter muscle was incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer in the absence and presence of ADM for 10 minutes. Accumulation of cAMP in the tissue extract was determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The binding of [125I]ADM to iris sphincter membranes was carried out by rapid filtration. Distribution of ADM in the ocular tissues was determined by RIA. Changes in muscle tension were recorded isometrically. RESULTS: Immunoreactive ADM was present in all tissues of the cat iris-ciliary body. In the isolated cat iris sphincter, ADM increased cAMP accumulation in a time- (t1/2 = 2.2 minutes) and concentration- (EC50 = 13 nM) dependent manner, and this effect was sixfold more efficacious than CGRP. ADM, CGRP, vasoactive intestinal peptide, prostaglandin E2, isoproterenol, and forskolin increased cAMP formation in cat sphincter by 12.5-, 2-, 2.2-, 1-, 2.6-, and 2.4-fold, respectively. The rank of the effects of ADM on cAMP formation in iris sphincter isolated from different animal species was in the following order: cat > dog > bovine > human > rabbit. In the cat iris sphincter, the CGRP antagonist, CGRP(8 to 37), was more effective than the ADM antagonist, ADM (26 to 52), in inhibiting both ADM- and CGRP-induced cAMP formation. ADM and CGRP inhibited carbachol-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 10 and 90 nM, respectively. Both ADM and CGRP displaced the binding of [125I]ADM to sphincter membranes effectively, with IC50 values of 0.81 and 1.15 nM, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In iris sphincter isolated from cat and other mammalian species including human, ADM is a much more efficacious activator of adenylate cyclase and a much more effective relaxant than CGRP. Its biological effects may be due to direct involvement of ADM receptors, but also to activation of CGRP receptors. Activation of ADM receptors by the peptide leads to concentration-dependent increases in cAMP accumulation and subsequent inhibition (relaxation) of smooth muscle contraction. These findings suggest a role for ADM as a local modulator of smooth muscle tone. A possible function for this potent hypotensive peptide in the regulation of intraocular pressure remains to be investigated.  (+info)

(4/90) Activities of masked 2',3'-dideoxynucleoside monophosphate derivatives against human immunodeficiency virus in resting macrophages.

The anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity of aryloxyphosphoramidate protides of a number of anti-HIV nucleoside analogues was assessed in resting primary monocyte-macrophages (M/M). While 2',3'-dideoxythymidine (d4T), 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA), and 2',3'-dideoxy-2',3'-didehydroadenosine (d4A) protides showed an anti-HIV activity that was 25- to 625-fold greater than the parent nucleotides d4T, ddA, and d4A, respectively, other aryloxyphosphoramidate protides showed similar or even lower anti-HIV activities than their parent compounds. This variable anti-HIV effect is most likely related to the different dynamics of intracellular nucleoside monophosphate release from the protides. Our results indicate the potential advantage of therapeutic use of this approach for some nucleotide analogues to affect HIV replication in M/M, one of the major reservoirs of HIV in vivo.  (+info)

(5/90) Role of cAMP in activation of ischemically sensitive abdominal visceral afferents.

A number of metabolites produced during abdominal ischemia can stimulate and/or sensitize visceral afferents. The precise mechanisms whereby these metabolites act are uncertain. Other studies have shown that the adenylate cyclase-cAMP system may be involved in the activation of sensory neurons. Therefore, we hypothesized that cAMP contributes to the activation of ischemically sensitive abdominal visceral afferents. Single-unit activity of abdominal visceral C fibers was recorded from the right thoracic sympathetic chain in anesthetized cats before and during 7 min of abdominal ischemia. Forty-six percent of ischemically sensitive C fibers responded to intra-arterial injection of 8-bromo-cAMP (0.35-1. 0 mg/kg), an analog of cAMP, with responses during ischemia increasing from 0.50 +/- 0.06 to 0.84 +/- 0.08 impulses/s (P < 0.05, n = 11 C fibers). Conversely, an inhibitor of adenylate cyclase, 2', 5'-dideoxyadenosine (DDA; 0.1 mg/kg iv), attenuated ischemia-induced increase in activity of afferents from 0.66 +/- 0.10 to 0.34 +/- 0. 09 impulses/s (P < 0.05; n = 8). Furthermore, whereas exogenous PGE(2) (3-4 microg/kg ia) augmented the ischemia-induced increase in activity of afferents (P < 0.05, n = 10), treatment with DDA (0.1 mg/kg iv) substantially reduced the increase in discharge activity of afferents during ischemia, which was augmented by PGE(2) (1.45 +/- 0.24 vs. 0.70 +/- 0.09 impulses/s, -DDA vs. +DDA; P < 0.05) in six fibers. A time control group (n = 4), however, demonstrated similar increases in the activity of afferents with repeated administration of PGE(2). These data suggest that cAMP contributes to the activation of abdominal visceral afferents during ischemia, particularly to the action of PGs on activation and/or sensitization of these endings.  (+info)

(6/90) Intracellular metabolism of beta-L-2',3'-dideoxyadenosine: relevance to its limited antiviral activity.

The intracellular metabolism of the beta-L- enantiomer of 2', 3'-dideoxyadenosine (beta-L-ddA) was investigated in HepG2 cells, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and primary cultured human hepatocytes in an effort to understand the metabolic basis of its limited activity on the replication of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus. Incubation of cells with 10 microM [2',3',8-(3)H]-beta-L-ddA resulted in an increased intracellular concentration of beta-L-ddA with time, demonstrating that these cells were able to transport beta-L-ddA. However, it did not result in the phosphorylation of beta-L-ddA to its pharmacologically active 5'-triphosphate (beta-L-ddATP). Five other intracellular metabolites were detected and identified as beta-L-2', 3'-dideoxyribonolactone, hypoxanthine, inosine, ADP, and ATP, with the last being the predominant metabolite, reaching levels as high as 5.14 +/- 0.95, 8.15 +/- 2.64, and 15.60 +/- 1.74 pmol/10(6) cells at 8, 4, and 2 h in HepG2 cells, PBMC, and hepatocytes, respectively. In addition, a beta-glucuronic derivative of beta-L-ddA was detected in cultured hepatocytes, accounting for 12.5% of the total metabolite pool. Coincubation of hepatocytes in primary culture with beta-L-ddA in the presence of increasing concentrations of 5'-methylthioadenosine resulted in decreased phosphorolysis of beta-L-ddA and formation of associated metabolites. These results indicate that the limited antiviral activity of beta-L-ddA is the result of its inadequate phosphorylation to the nucleotide level due to phosphorolysis and catabolism of beta-L-ddA by methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (EC 2.4.2.28).  (+info)

(7/90) Dominant role of cAMP in regulation of microvessel permeability.

We reported previously that increasing cAMP levels in endothelial cells attenuated ATP-induced increases in hydraulic conductivity (L(p)), and that the activation of cGMP-dependent pathways was a necessary step to increase L(p) in response to inflammatory mediators. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of basal levels of cAMP in microvessel permeability under resting conditions and to evaluate the cross talk between cAMP- and cGMP-dependent signaling mechanisms in regulation of microvessel permeability under stimulated conditions, using individually perfused microvessels from frog and rat mesenteries. We found that reducing cAMP levels by inhibition of adenylate cyclase or inhibiting cAMP-dependent protein kinase through the use of H-89 increased basal L(p) in both frog and rat mesenteric venular microvessels. We also found that 8-bromocAMP (8-BrcAMP, 0.2 and 2 mM) was sufficient to attenuate or abolish the increases in L(p) due to exposure of frog mesenteric venular microvessels to 8-BrcGMP (2 mM) and ATP (10 microM). Similarly, in rat mesenteric venular microvessels, application of 8-BrcAMP (2 mM) abolished the increases in L(p) due to exposure to 8-BrcGMP alone (2 mM) or with the combination of bradykinin (1 nM). In addition, application of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine, an inhibitor of cGMP-stimulated phosphodiesterase, significantly attenuated both 8-BrcGMP- and bradykinin-induced increases in L(p). These results demonstrate that basal levels of cAMP are critical to maintaining normal permeability under resting conditions, and that increased levels of cAMP are capable of overcoming the activation of cGMP-dependent pathways, therefore preventing increases in microvessel permeability. The balance between endothelial concentrations of these two opposing cyclic nucleotides controls microvessel permeability, and cAMP levels play a dominant role.  (+info)

(8/90) Identification of Escherichia coli dnaE (polC) mutants with altered sensitivity to 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine.

Bacteria with reduced DNA polymerase I activity have increased sensitivity to killing by chain-terminating nucleotides (S. A. Rashbaum and N. R. Cozzarelli, Nature 264:679-680, 1976). We have used this observation as the basis of a genetic strategy to identify mutations in the dnaE (polC) gene of Escherichia coli that alter sensitivity to 2',3'-dideoxyadenosine (ddA). Two dnaE (polC) mutant strains with increased sensitivity to ddA and one strain with increased resistance were isolated and characterized. The mutant phenotypes are due to single amino acid substitutions in the alpha subunit, the protein product of the dnaE (polC) gene. Increased sensitivity to ddA is produced by the L329F and H417Y substitutions, and increased resistance is produced by the G365S substitution. The L329F and H417Y substitutions also reduce the accuracy of DNA replication (the mutator phenotype), while the G365S substitution increases accuracy (the antimutator phenotype). All of the amino acid substitutions are in conserved regions near essential aspartate residues. These results prove the effectiveness of the genetic strategy in identifying informative dnaE (polC) mutations that can be used to elucidate the molecular basis of nucleotide interactions in the alpha subunit of the DNA polymerase III holoenzyme.  (+info)