Binding of the transition state analog MgADP-fluoroaluminate to F1-ATPase.
Escherichia coli F1-ATPase from mutant betaY331W was potently inhibited by fluoroaluminate plus MgADP but not by MgADP alone. beta-Trp-331 fluorescence was used to measure MgADP binding to catalytic sites. Fluoroaluminate induced a very large increase in MgADP binding affinity at catalytic site one, a smaller increase at site two, and no effect at site three. Mutation of either of the critical catalytic site residues beta-Lys-155 or beta-Glu-181 to Gln abolished the effects of fluoroaluminate on MgADP binding. The results indicate that the MgADP-fluoroaluminate complex is a transition state analog and independently demonstrate that residues beta-Lys-155 and (particularly) beta-Glu-181 are important for generation and stabilization of the catalytic transition state. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide-inhibited enzyme, with 1% residual steady-state ATPase, showed normal transition state formation as judged by fluoroaluminate-induced MgADP binding affinity changes, consistent with a proposed mechanism by which dicyclohexylcarbodiimide prevents a conformational interaction between catalytic sites but does not affect the catalytic step per se. The fluorescence technique should prove valuable for future transition state studies of F1-ATPase. (+info)
Kup is the major K+ uptake system in Escherichia coli upon hyper-osmotic stress at a low pH.
The K+ uptake was observed in washed cells of Escherichia coli, wild-type, upon hyper-osmotic stress at pH 5.5 when glucose was supplemented. This uptake had apparent a Km of 0.58 mM and Vmax of 0.10 micromol K+/min/mg protein. Such a K+ uptake was investigated using a mutant defective in Kdp and TrkA but with a functional Kup and a mutant defective in Kdp and Kup but having an active TrkA. The K+ uptake to reach the steady state level as well as the initial K+ influx rate in the first mutant were at least 3.5-fold greater than these values with the second mutant and similar to those of the wild-type. Such differences in the K+ uptake activity were correlated with K+ requirements for growth of these mutants. Moreover, the K+ uptake in the wild-type was blocked by a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone). Valinomycin, arsenate and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide were not effective in changing the K+ uptake. It is suggested that Kup is the major K+ uptake system in E. coli upon hyper-osmotic stress at a low pH. (+info)
Sodium-dependent glutamate uptake by an alkaliphilic, thermophilic Bacillus strain, TA2.A1.
A strain of Bacillus designated TA2.A1, isolated from a thermal spring in Te Aroha, New Zealand, grew optimally at pH 9.2 and 70 degrees C. Bacillus strain TA2.A1 utilized glutamate as a sole carbon and energy source for growth, and sodium chloride (>5 mM) was an obligate requirement for growth. Growth on glutamate was inhibited by monensin and amiloride, both inhibitors that collapse the sodium gradient (DeltapNa) across the cell membrane. N, N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide inhibited the growth of Bacillus strain TA2.A1, suggesting that an F1F0-ATPase (H type) was being used to generate cellular ATP needed for anabolic reactions. Vanadate, an inhibitor of V-type ATPases, did not affect the growth of Bacillus strain TA2.A1. Glutamate transport by Bacillus strain TA2.A1 could be driven by an artificial membrane potential (DeltaPsi), but only when sodium was present. In the absence of sodium, the rate of DeltaPsi-driven glutamate uptake was fourfold lower. No glutamate transport was observed in the presence of DeltapNa alone (i.e., no DeltaPsi). Glutamate uptake was specifically inhibited by monensin, and the Km for sodium was 5.6 mM. The Hill plot had a slope of approximately 1, suggesting that sodium binding was noncooperative and that the glutamate transporter had a single binding site for sodium. Glutamate transport was not affected by the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting that the transmembrane pH gradient was not required for glutamate transport. The rate of glutamate transport increased with increasing glutamate concentration; the Km for glutamate was 2.90 microM, and the Vmax was 0.7 nmol. min-1 mg of protein. Glutamate transport was specifically inhibited by glutamate analogues. (+info)
The effect of carboxyl group modification on the chromophore regeneration of archaeopsin-1 and bacterioopsin.
Carboxyl group modification with DCCD and NCD-4 was employed to investigate the chemical environment of the side chains of archaeopsin-1 (aO-1) and bacterioopsin (bO). Some differences were observed between aO-1 and bO. Although DCCD or NCD-4 did not modify aO-1 in bleached membrane, they modified bO in bleached membrane and in mixed DMPC/CHAPS/SDS micelles at neutral pH, thereby affecting the opsin shift and the photocycle of the regenerated chromophore. On the contrary, after solubilization with SDS, aO-1 and bO were modified by DCCD and NCD-4, which decreased the chromophore regeneration. In particular, the reaction of aO-1 in SDS with NCD-4 proceeded in a 1:1 ratio at neutral pH. The fluorescence and CD spectra indicated that the modified site was located in the hydrophobic, asymmetrical region. Lysyl-endopeptidase digestion of NCD-4 modified aO-1 produced a fluorescent fragment and amino acid sequence analysis showed that Asp85 or Asp96 in helix C is a probable candidate for the modified residue at present. Kinetic CD measurements revealed that the introduction of N-acylurea at an Asp residue in helix C did not affect the formation of the transient intermediate but inhibited the side chain packing during refolding. (+info)
Copper(II)-induced self-oligomerization of alpha-synuclein.
alpha-Synuclein is a component of the abnormal protein depositions in senile plaques and Lewy bodies of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease respectively. The protein was suggested to provide a possible nucleation centre for plaque formation in AD via selective interaction with amyloid beta/A4 protein (Abeta). We have shown previously that alpha-synuclein has experienced self-oligomerization when Abeta25-35 was present in an orientation-specific manner in the sequence. Here we examine this biochemically specific self-oligomerization with the use of various metals. Strikingly, copper(II) was the most effective metal ion affecting alpha-synuclein to form self-oligomers in the presence of coupling reagents such as dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide or N-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline. The size distribution of the oligomers indicated that monomeric alpha-synuclein was oligomerized sequentially. The copper-induced oligomerization was shown to be suppressed as the acidic C-terminus of alpha-synuclein was truncated by treatment with endoproteinase Asp-N. In contrast, the Abeta25-35-induced oligomerizations of the intact and truncated forms of alpha-synuclein were not affected. This clearly indicated that the copper-induced oligomerization was dependent on the acidic C-terminal region and that its underlying biochemical mechanism was distinct from that of the Abeta25-35-induced oligomerization. Although the physiological or pathological relevance of the oligomerization remains currently elusive, the common outcome of alpha-synuclein on treatment with copper or Abeta25-35 might be useful in understanding neurodegenerative disorders in molecular terms. In addition, abnormal copper homoeostasis could be considered as one of the risk factors for the development of disorders such as AD or Parkinson's disease. (+info)
Ni(2+) transport and accumulation in Rhodospirillum rubrum.
The cooCTJ gene products are coexpressed with CO-dehydrogenase (CODH) and facilitate in vivo nickel insertion into CODH. A Ni(2+) transport assay was used to monitor uptake and accumulation of (63)Ni(2+) into R. rubrum and to observe the effect of mutations in the cooC, cooT, and cooJ genes on (63)Ni(2+) transport and accumulation. Cells grown either in the presence or absence of CO transported Ni(2+) with a K(m) of 19 +/- 4 microM and a V(max) of 310 +/- 22 pmol of Ni/min/mg of total protein. Insertional mutations disrupting the reading frame of the cooCTJ genes, either individually or all three genes simultaneously, transported Ni(2+) the same as wild-type cells. The nickel specificity for transport was tested by conducting the transport assay in the presence of other divalent metal ions. At a 17-fold excess Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), and Zn(2+) showed no inhibition of (63)Ni(2+) transport but Co(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) inhibited transport 35, 58, and 66%, respectively. Nickel transport was inhibited by cold (50% at 4 degrees C), by protonophores (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, 44%, and 2,4-dinitrophenol, 26%), by sodium azide (25%), and hydroxyl amine (33%). Inhibitors of ATP synthase (N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide and oligomycin) and incubation of cells in the dark stimulated Ni(2+) transport. (63)Ni accumulation after 2 h was four times greater in CO-induced cells than in cells not exposed to CO. The CO-stimulated (63)Ni(2+) accumulation coincided with the appearance of CODH activity in the culture, suggesting that the (63)Ni(2+) was accumulating in CODH. The cooC, cooT, and cooJ genes are required for the increased (63)Ni(2+) accumulation observed upon CO exposure because cells containing mutations disrupting any or all of these genes accumulated (63)Ni(2+) like cells unexposed to CO. (+info)
Localization of acidic residues involved in the proton pumping activity of the bovine heart mitochondrial bc1 complex.
Chemical modification of carboxyl residues in polypeptide subunits of the mitochondrial bc1 complex causes a decoupling effect, that is inhibition of the proton pumping activity, without affecting the rate of electron transfer to ferricytochrome c. The study presented here is aimed at localizing and identifying the residues whose modification results in decoupling of the complex. Glutamate-53 in subunit IX (the DCCD-binding protein) and aspartate-166 in the Rieske iron-sulfur protein are the residues modified by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and N-(ethoxycarbonyl)-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline (EEDQ), respectively. The results obtained also suggest that the carboxy-terminal sequence of the Core protein II, which is fairly rich in acidic residues, may also play a role in the vectorial proton translocation activity of the complex. (+info)
Tpr1, a Schizosaccharomyces pombe protein involved in potassium transport.
The Schizosaccharomyces pombe Tpr1 was isolated as suppressor of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Delta trk1,2 potassium uptake deficient phenotype. Tpr1, for tetratrico peptide repeat, encodes a 1039 amino acid residues protein with several reiterated TPR units displaying significant homology to p150(TSP), a recently identified phosphoprotein of mouse, to S. cerevisiae CTR9 and to related sequences of human, Caenorhabditis elegans, Methanoccocus jannaschii and Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression of Tpr1 restored growth on 0.2 mM K(+) media, induced K(+) transport with a K(T) of 4.6 mM and resumed inward currents of -90 pA at -250 mV (pH 7.2) conducting K(+) and other alkali-metal ions. The tetratrico peptide repeat is a degenerate motif of 34 amino acids that is repeated several times within TPR-containing proteins and has been suggested to mediate protein-protein interactions. The sequence and putative binding properties of Tpr1 suggest the protein unlikely as transporter but involved in the enhancement of K(+) uptake via conventional carriers. (+info)