Regulation of interleukin-8 expression by reduced oxygen pressure in human glioblastoma.
Oxygen deprivation is an important biological feature of tumor growth. We previously showed that in glioma, anoxia increases expression of IL-8, a chemokine and angiogenic factor. Here, we analysed for the first time the biochemical mechanisms inducing the IL-8 gene upon anoxia in glioma cells, and showed that they differ from those inducing the VEGF gene. Both genes are induced in biologically and genetically heterogenous glioblastoma cell lines (LN-229, LN-Z308, U87MG, T98G), whereas, in gliosarcoma cells (D247MG), only the VEGF gene is induced. The kinetics of IL-8 and VEGF mRNA inductions differ in these cells and reoxygenation experiments showed that the induction is due to the anoxic stress per se. Furthermore, in LN-229 and LN-Z308 cell lines actinomycin D, DRB and nuclear run-on experiments showed that anoxia stimulates increased transcription of both genes. Electromobility shift assays show increased protein binding to the AP-1 site on the IL-8 promoter following anoxia treatment. Finally, in situ hybridization on glioblastoma sections shows that the in vivo expression patterns of IL-8 and VEGF genes overlap, but are not identical. Since intratumoral augmentation of IL-8 and VEGF secretion, following microenvironmental decreases in oxygen pressure, may promote angiogenesis, further definition of these pathways is essential to appropriately target them for antitumoral therapy. (+info)
Stimulation of Tat-associated kinase-independent transcriptional elongation from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 long terminal repeat by a cellular enhancer.
The human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) long terminal repeat (LTR) initiates transcription efficiently but produces only short transcripts in the absence of the trans-activator protein, Tat. To determine whether a cellular enhancer could provide the signals required to recruit an elongation-competent polymerase to the HIV-1 LTR, the B cell-specific immunoglobulin heavy chain gene enhancer (IgHE) was inserted upstream of the LTR. The enhancer increased transcription in the absence of Tat between 6- and 7-fold in transfected B cells, but the full-length transcripts remained at basal levels in HeLa cells, where the enhancer is inactive. RNase-protection studies showed that initiation levels in the presence and absence of the enhancer were constant, but the enhancer significantly increased the elongation capacity of the polymerases. Tat-stimulated elongation is strongly inhibited by the nucleoside analogue 5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), which inhibits the Tat-associated kinase, TAK (CDK9). However, polymerases initiating transcription from LTRs carrying the enhancer were able to efficiently elongate in the presence of DRB. Specific repression of TAK by expression in trans of the CDK9 kinase also inhibited Tat-stimulated elongation but did not inhibit enhancer-dependent transcription significantly. Thus, the activation of polymerase processivity by the IgHE involves a unique mechanism which is independent of TAK. (+info)
Transcriptional regulation of interleukin-2 gene expression is impaired by copper deficiency in Jurkat human T lymphocytes.
Copper deficiency reduces secretion of the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) by activated rodent splenocytes, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Jurkat cells, a human T lymphocyte cell line. Previous studies showed that low Cu status also decreased the level of IL-2 mRNA in activated Jurkat cells by 50%. Synthesis of this cytokine is regulated by alterations in transcription of the IL-2 gene and the stability of IL-2 mRNA. To determine if Cu status influenced promoter activity of the IL-2 gene, Jurkat cells were transfected with a luciferase reporter gene construct containing the entire 300 bp human IL-2 promoter/enhancer sequence. Cu deficiency was induced by incubating stably transfected cells with the Cu chelator 2,3,2-tetraamine for 35 h prior to activating cells with phytohemagglutinin-P and phorbol myristate acetate. Luciferase activity in lysates of Cu-deficient cells was approximately 50% lower in several multiclonal and clonal cell lines of stably transfected cells than in replicate cultures that were not exposed to chelator. The relative levels of endogenous IL-2 bioactivity and luciferase activity were highly correlated in the transfected cell lines. The chelator-mediated reduction in reporter gene activity was dose-dependent at levels of 5-40 micromol 2,3,2-tetraamine/L. The addition of a slight molar excess of Cu, but not Zn or Fe, to medium containing 2,3,2-tetraamine prevented the decline in luciferase activity. IL-2 mRNA stability in parental Jurkat cells was independent of Cu status. These data indicate that decreased cellular Cu attenuates IL-2 synthesis in T lymphocytes by inhibiting transcription of the IL-2 gene. (+info)
Active transgenes in zebrafish are enriched in acetylated histone H4 and dynamically associate with RNA Pol II and splicing complexes.
We have investigated the functional organization of active and silent integrated luciferase transgenes in zebrafish, with the aim of accounting for the variegation of transgene expression in this species. We demonstrate the enrichment of transcriptionally active transgenes in acetylated histone H4 and the dynamic association of the transgenes with splicing factor SC35 and RNA Pol II. Analysis of interphase nuclei and extended chromatin fibers by immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization reveals a co-localization of transgenes with acetylated H4 in luciferase-expressing animals only. Enrichment of expressed transgenes in acetylated H4 is further demonstrated by their co-precipitation from chromatin using anti-acetylated H4 antibodies. Little correlation exists, however, between the level of histone acetylation and the degree of transgene expression. In transgene-expressing zebrafish, most transgenes co-localize with Pol II and SC35, whereas no such association occurs in non-expressing individuals. Inhibition of Pol II abolishes transgene expression and disrupts association of transgenes with SC35, although inactivated transgenes remains enriched in acetylated histones. Exposure of embryos to the histone deacetylation inhibitor TSA induces expression of most silent transgenes. Chromatin containing activated transgenes becomes enriched in acetylated histones and the transgenes recruit SC35 and Pol II. The results demonstrate a correlation between H4 acetylation and transgene activity, and argue that active transgenes dynamically recruit splicing factors and Pol II. The data also suggest that dissociation of splicing factors from transgenes upon Pol II inhibition is not a consequence of changes in H4 acetylation. (+info)
NELF, a multisubunit complex containing RD, cooperates with DSIF to repress RNA polymerase II elongation.
DRB is a classic inhibitor of transcription elongation by RNA polymerase II (pol II). Since DRB generally affects class II genes, factors involved in this process must play fundamental roles in pol II elongation. Recently, two elongation factors essential for DRB action were identified, namely DSIF and P-TEFb. Here we describe the identification and purification from HeLa nuclear extract of a third protein factor required for DRB-sensitive transcription. This factor, termed negative elongation factor (NELF), cooperates with DSIF and strongly represses pol II elongation. This repression is reversed by P-TEFb-dependent phosphorylation of the pol II C-terminal domain. NELF is composed of five polypeptides, the smallest of which is identical to RD, a putative RNA-binding protein of unknown function. This study reveals a molecular mechanism for DRB action and a regulatory network of positive and negative elongation factors. (+info)
Transcription factor E2F-1 is upregulated in response to DNA damage in a manner analogous to that of p53.
The transcription factor E2F-1 directs the expression of genes that induce or regulate cell division, and a role for E2F-1 in driving cells into apoptosis is the subject of intense discussion. Recently it has been shown that E2F-1 binds and coprecipitates with the mouse double-minute chromosome 2 protein (Mdm2). A domain of E2F-1 (amino acids 390 to 406) shows striking similarity to the Mdm2 binding domain of the tumor suppressor protein p53. It is known that interaction of Mdm2 with p53 through this domain is required for Mdm2-dependent degradation of p53. We show here that E2F-1 protein is upregulated in response to DNA damage. The kinetics of induction are dependent upon the source of DNA damage, i.e., fast and transient after irradiation with X rays and delayed and stable after irradiation with UVC, and thus match the kinetics of p53 induction in response to DNA damage. We show further that E2F-1 is also upregulated by treatment with the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D and with the kinase inhibitor DRB, as well as by high concentrations of the kinase inhibitor H7, all conditions which also upregulate p53. In our experiments we were not able to see an increase in E2F-1 RNA production but did find an increase in protein stability in UVC-irradiated cells. Upregulation of E2F-1 in response to DNA damage seems to require the presence of wild-type p53, since we did not observe an increase in the level of E2F-1 protein in several cell lines which possess mutated p53. Previous experiments showed that p53 is upregulated after microinjection of an antibody which binds to a domain of Mdm2 that is required for the interaction of Mdm2 with p53. Microinjection of the same antibody also increases the expression of E2F-1 protein, while microinjection of a control antibody does not. Furthermore, microinjection of Mdm2 antisense oligonucleotides upregulates E2F-1 protein, while microinjection of an unrelated oligonucleotide does not. These data suggest that E2F-1 is upregulated in a similar way to p53 in response to DNA damage and that Mdm2 appears to play a major role in this pathway. (+info)
Inefficient processing impairs release of RNA from the site of transcription.
We describe here for the first time the site of retention within the nucleus of pre-mRNA processing mutants unable to be exported to the cytoplasm. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to detect transcripts from human beta-globin genes that are either normal or defective in splicing or 3' end formation. Nuclear transcripts of both wild-type and mutant RNAs are detected only as intranuclear foci that colocalize with the template gene locus. The kinetics of transcript release from the site of transcription was assessed by treatment of cells with the transcriptional inhibitors actinomycin D, alpha-amanitin and DRB. These drugs induce the rapid disappearance of nuclear foci corresponding to wild-type human beta-globin RNA. In contrast, pre-mRNA mutants defective in either splicing or 3' end formation and which fail to be transported to the cytoplasm, are retained at the site of transcription. Therefore, 3' end processing and splicing appear to be rate limiting for release of mRNA from the site of transcription. (+info)
3-D organization of ribosomal transcription units after DRB inhibition of RNA polymerase II transcription.
In each bead of the nucleolar necklace, using adenosine analog DRB-treated PtK1 cells, we investigated the three components of rDNA transcription, i.e. the gene, transcription factor UBF and transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed the unraveling and 3-D dispersion of most of the rDNA coding sequences within the nucleus. The signals were small, of similar intensity and tandemly organized in the necklace. This observation is compatible with the fact that they might correspond to single gene units. Active transcription was visualized in these units, demonstrating that they were active functional units. Transcript labeling was not similar for each unit, contrary to UBF labeling. UBF and rRNA transcripts were only partially colocalized, as demonstrated by 3-D image analysis and quantification. As visualized by electron microscopy, the necklace was composed of a small fibrillar center partially surrounded by a dense fibrillar component. The 3-D arrangement of this individual unit in the necklace, investigated both by confocal and electron microscopy in the same cells, showed that the individual beads were linked by a dense fibrillar component. The reversibility of this organization after removal of DRB indicated that the beads in the necklace are certainly the elementary functional domain of the nucleolus. In addition, these results lead us to suggest that the organization of a functional domain, presumably corresponding to a single gene, can be studied by in situ approaches. (+info)