Class I P-glycoproteins (Pgp) confer multidrug resistance in tumors, but the physiologic function of Pgp in normal tissues remains uncertain. In cells derived from tissues that normally express Pgp, recent data suggest a possible role for Pgp in cholesterol trafficking from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum. We investigated the esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol under basal conditions and in response to sphingomyelinase treatment in transfected and drug-selected cell lines expressing differing amounts of functional class I Pgp. Compared with parental NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, cells transfected with human multidrug resistance (MDR1) Pgp esterified more cholesterol both without and with sphingomyelinase. Esterification also was greater in drug-selected Dox 6 myeloma cells than parental 8226 cells, which express low and non-immunodetectable amounts of Pgp, respectively. However, no differences in total plasma membrane cholesterol were detected. Transfection of fibroblasts with the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) did not alter esterification, showing that cholesterol trafficking was not generally affected by ATP-binding cassette transporters. Steroidal (progesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone) and non-steroidal antagonists (verapamil, PSC 833, LY335979, and GF120918) were evaluated for effects on both cholesterol trafficking and the net content of 99mTc-Sestamibi, a reporter of drug transport activity mediated by Pgp. In Pgp-expressing cells treated with nonselective and selective inhibitors, both the kinetics and efficacy of inhibition of cholesterol esterification differed from the antagonism of drug transport mediated by Pgp. Thus, although the data show that greater expression of class I Pgp within a given cell type is associated with enhanced esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol in support of a physiologic function for Pgp in facilitating cholesterol trafficking, the molecular mechanism is dissociated from the conventional drug transport activity of Pgp. (+info)
Selectivity of the multidrug resistance modulator, LY335979, for P-glycoprotein and effect on cytochrome P-450 activities.
Overexpression of ATP-dependent drug efflux pumps, P-glycoprotein (Pgp) or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), confers multidrug resistance to tumor cells. Modulators of multidrug resistance block the action of these pumps, thereby sensitizing cells to oncolytics. A potent Pgp modulator is LY335979, which fully sensitizes Pgp-expressing cells at 0.1 microM in cytotoxicity assays and for which Pgp has an affinity of 59 nM. The present study examines its effect on MRP1-mediated drug resistance and cytochrome P-450 (CYP) activity and its ability to serve as a Pgp substrate. Drug resistance was examined with HL60/ADR and MRP1-transfected HeLa-T5 cells. Drug cytotoxicity was unaffected by 1 microM LY335979; leukotriene C4 uptake into HeLa-T5 membrane vesicles was unaffected. Because the substrate specificity of Pgp and CYP3A overlap, the effect of LY335979 on the 1'-hydroxylation of midazolam by CYP3A in human liver microsomes was examined. The apparent K(i) was 3.8 microM, approximately 60-fold higher than the affinity of Pgp for LY335979. The modulator's effect on Pgp was evaluated with Pgp-overexpressing CEM/vinblastine (VLB)(100) and parental CCRF-CEM cells. Both cell lines accumulated [(3)H]LY335979 equally well and did not efflux [(3)H]LY335979 during a 3-h incubation, indicating that it is not a substrate of Pgp. Equilibrium-binding studies with CEM/VLB(100) plasma membranes and [(3)H]LY335979 showed that Pgp had a K(d) of 73 nM, which is in good agreement with the previously determined K(i) value. Thus, LY335979 is an extremely potent Pgp, and not MRP1 or MRP2, modulator and has a significantly lower affinity for CYP3A than for Pgp. (+info)
Pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein transport enhances the distribution of HIV-1 protease inhibitors into brain and testes.
HIV protease inhibitors have proven remarkably effective in treating HIV-1 infection. However, some tissues such as the brain and testes (sanctuary sites) are possibly protected from exposure to HIV protease inhibitors due to drug entry being limited by the membrane efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, located in the capillary endothelium. Intravenous administration of the novel and potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor LY-335979 to mice (1-50 mg/kg) increased brain and testes concentration of [(14)C]nelfinavir, up to 37- and 4-fold, respectively, in a dose-dependent fashion. Similar effects in brain levels were also observed with (14)C-labeled amprenavir, indinavir, and saquinavir. Because [(14)C]nelfinavir plasma drug levels were only modestly increased by LY-335979, the increase in brain/plasma and testes/plasma ratios of 14- to 17- and 2- to 5-fold, respectively, was due to increased tissue penetration. Less potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors like valspodar (PSC-833), cyclosporin A, and ketoconazole, as well as quinidine and verapamil, had modest or little effect on brain/plasma ratios but increased plasma nelfinavir concentrations due to inhibition of CYP3A-mediated metabolism. Collectively, these findings provide "proof-of-concept" for increasing HIV protease inhibitor distribution into pharmacologic sanctuary sites by targeted inhibition of P-glycoprotein using selective and potent agents and suggest a new therapeutic strategy to reduce HIV-1 viral replication. (+info)
Effect of capillary efflux transport inhibition on the determination of probe recovery during in vivo microdialysis in the brain.
Intracerebral microdialysis probe recovery (extraction fraction) may be influenced by several mass transport processes in the brain, including efflux and uptake exchange between brain and blood. Therefore, changes in probe recovery under various experimental conditions can be useful to characterize fundamental drug transport processes. Accordingly, the effect of inhibiting transport on probe recovery was investigated for two capillary efflux transporters with potentially different membrane localization and transport mechanisms, P-glycoprotein and an organic anion transporter. Fluorescein/probenecid and quinidine/LY-335979 were chosen as the substrate/inhibitor combinations for organic anion transport and P-glycoprotein-medicated transport, respectively. Probenecid decreased the probe recovery of fluorescein in frontal cortex, from 0.21 +/- 0.017 to 0.17 +/- 0.020 (p < 0.01). Quantitative microdialysis calculations indicated that probenecid treatment reduced the total brain elimination rate constant by 3-fold from 0.37 to 0.12 (ml/min. ml of extracellular fluid). In contrast, the microdialysis recovery of quinidine, delivered locally to the brain via the probe perfusate, was not sensitive to P-glycoprotein inhibition by systemically administered LY-335979, a potent and specific inhibitor of P-glycoprotein. Recovery of difluorofluorescein, an analog of fluorescein, was also decreased by probenecid in the frontal cortex but not in the ventricle cerebrospinal fluid. These experimental observations are in qualitative agreement with microdialysis theory incorporating mathematical models of transporter kinetics. These studies suggest that only in certain circumstances will efflux inhibition at the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier influence the microdialysis probe recovery, and this may depend upon the substrate and inhibitor examined and their routes of administration, the localization and mechanism of the membrane transporter, as well as the microenvironment surrounding the probe. (+info)
Evidence of P-glycoprotein mediated apical to basolateral transport of flunisolide in human broncho-tracheal epithelial cells (Calu-3).
1. Transepithelial transport of flunisolide was studied in reconstituted cell monolayers of Calu-3, LLC-PK1 and the MDR1-P-glycoprotein transfected LLC-MDR1 cells. 2. Flunisolide transport was polarized in the apical (ap) to basolateral (bl) direction in Calu-3 cells and was demonstrated to be ATP-dependent. In LLC-MDR1 cells, flunisolide was transported in the bl to ap direction and showed no polarization in LLC-PK1 cells. 3. Non-specific inhibition of cellular metabolism at low temperature (4 degrees C) or by 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-d-glu) and sodium azide (NaN(3)) abolished the polarized transport. Polarized flunisolide transport was also inhibited by the specific Pgp inhibitors verapamil, SDZ PSC 833 and LY335979. 4. Under all experimental conditions and in the presence of all used inhibitors, no decrease in the TransEpithelial Electrical Resistance (TEER) values was detected. From all inhibitors used, only the general metabolism inhibitors 2-deoxy-D-glucose and NaN(3), decreased the survival of Calu-3 cells. 5. Western blotting analysis and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated the presence of MDR1-Pgp at mainly the basolateral side of the plasma membrane in Calu-3 cells and at the apical side in LLC-MDR1 cells. Mass spectroscopy studies demonstrated that flunisolide is transported unmetabolized across Calu-3 cells. 6. In conclusion, these results show that the active ap to bl transport of flunisolide across Calu-3 cells is facilitated by MDR1-Pgp located in the basolateral plasma membrane. (+info)
The role of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein in brain penetration of prednisolone.
In the present study, we have investigated the role of the multidrug resistance (mdr) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier in hampering the access of the synthetic glucocorticoid, prednisolone. In vivo, a tracer dose of [(3)H]prednisolone poorly penetrated the brain of adrenalectomised wild-type mice, but the uptake was more than threefold enhanced in the absence of Pgp expression in mdr1a (-/-) mice. In vitro, in stably transfected LLC-PK1 monolayers the human MDR1 P-glycoprotein was able to transport prednisolone present at a micromolar concentration. A specific Pgp blocker, LY 335979, could block this polar transport of [(3)H]prednisolone. Human Pgp does not transport all steroids, as cortexolone was not transported at all and aldosterone was only weakly transported. The ability of Pgp to export the synthetic glucocorticoid, prednisolone, suggests that uptake of prednisolone in the human brain is impaired, leading to a discrepancy between central and peripheral actions. Furthermore, the ensuing imbalance in activation of the two types of brain corticosteroid receptors may have consequences for cognitive performance and mood. (+info)
A phase I trial of a potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor, Zosuquidar.3HCl trihydrochloride (LY335979), administered orally in combination with doxorubicin in patients with advanced malignancies.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the safety and tolerability of Zosuquidar.3HCl, a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), when administered p.o. alone and in combination with doxorubicin and to determine whether Zosuquidar.3HCl affects doxorubicin pharmacokinetics and inhibits Pgp function in peripheral blood natural killer lymphocytes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients with advanced nonhematological malignancies were eligible for this Phase I trial. Zosuquidar.3HCl and doxorubicin were administered separately during the first cycle of therapy and then administered concurrently. Zosuquidar.3HCl was administered over 4 days, with doses escalated until the occurrence of dose-limiting toxicity. Subsequently, doxorubicin doses were increased from 45 to 75 mg/m(2). Zosuquidar.3HCl, doxorubicin, and doxorubicinol pharmacokinetics were analyzed, and dual fluorescence cytometry was used to determine the effects of Zosuquidar.3HCl on Pgp function in natural killer cells. RESULTS: A total of 38 patients were treated at nine dose levels. Neurotoxicity was dose-limiting for oral Zosuquidar.3HCl, characterized by cerebellar dysfunction, hallucinations, and palinopsia. The maximum-tolerated dose for oral Zosuquidar.3HCl administered every 12 h for 4 days is 300 mg/m(2). Zosuquidar.3HCl did not affect doxorubicin myelosuppression or pharmacokinetics, and Zosuquidar.3HCl pharmacokinetics were similar in the absence and presence of doxorubicin. Higher plasma concentrations of Zosuquidar.3HCl were associated with greater Pgp inhibition in natural killer cells. CONCLUSION: Zosuquidar.3HCl can be coadministered with doxorubicin using a 4-day oral dosing schedule, with little effect on doxorubicin toxicity or pharmacokinetics. Further refinement in Zosuquidar.3HCl dosing and scheduling should be explored to optimize Pgp inhibition while minimizing cerebellar toxicity. (+info)
A population pharmacokinetic model for paclitaxel in the presence of a novel P-gp modulator, Zosuquidar Trihydrochloride (LY335979).
AIMS: To develop a population pharmacokinetic model for paclitaxel in the presence of a MDR modulator, zosuquidar 3HCl. METHODS: The population approach was used (implemented with NONMEM) to analyse paclitaxel pharmacokinetic data from 43 patients who received a 3-h intravenous infusion of paclitaxel (175 mg x m(-2) or 225 mg x m(-2)) alone in cycle 2 or concomitantly with the oral administration of zosuquidar 3HCl in cycle 1. RESULTS: The structural pharmacokinetic model for paclitaxel, accounting for the Cremophor ELTM impact, was a three-compartment model with a nonlinear model for paclitaxel plasma clearance (CL), involving a linear decrease in this parameter during the infusion and a sigmoidal increase with time after the infusion. The final model described the effect of Zosuquidar 3HCl on paclitaxel CL by a categorical relationship. A 25% decrease in paclitaxel CL was observed, corresponding to an 1.3-fold increase in paclitaxel AUC (from 14829 microg x l(-1) x h to 19115 microg x l(-1) x h following paclitaxel 175 mg x m(-2)) when zosuquidar Cmax was greater than 350 microg x l(-1). This cut-off concentration closely corresponded to the IC50 of a sigmoidal Emax relationship (328 microg x l(-1)). A standard dose of 175 mg x m(-2) of paclitaxel could be safely combined with doses of zosuquidar 3HCl resulting in plasma concentrations known, from previous studies, to result in maximal P-gp inhibition. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis provides a model which accurately characterized the increase in paclitaxel exposure, which is most likely to be due to P-gp inhibition in the bile canaliculi, in the presence of zosuquidar 3HCl (Cmax > 350 microg x l(-1)) and is predictive of paclitaxel pharmacokinetics following a 3 h infusion. Hence the model could be useful in guiding therapy for paclitaxel alone and also for paclitaxel administered concomitantly with a P-gp inhibitor, and in designing further clinical trials. (+info)