Peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) in human breast cancer: correlation of breast cancer cell aggressive phenotype with PBR expression, nuclear localization, and PBR-mediated cell proliferation and nuclear transport of cholesterol.
Aberrant cell proliferation and increased invasive and metastatic behavior are hallmarks of the advancement of breast cancer. Numerous studies implicate a role for cholesterol in the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation and cancer progression. The peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) is an Mr 18,000 protein primarily localized to the mitochondria. PBR mediates cholesterol transport across the mitochondrial membranes in steroidogenic cells. A role for PBR in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation has also been shown. In this study, we examined the expression, characteristics, localization, and function of PBR in a battery of human breast cancer cell lines differing in their invasive and chemotactic potential as well as in several human tissue biopsies. Expression of PBR ligand binding and mRNA was dramatically increased in the highly aggressive cell lines, such as MDA-231, relative to nonaggressive cell lines, such as MCF-7. PBR was also found to be expressed at high levels in aggressive metastatic human breast tumor biopsies compared with normal breast tissues. Subcellular localization with both antibodies and a fluorescent PBR drug ligand revealed that PBR from the MDA-231 cell line as well as from aggressive metastatic human breast tumor biopsies localized primarily in and around the nucleus. This localization is in direct contrast to the largely cytoplasmic localization seen in MCF-7 cells, normal breast tissue, and to the typical mitochondrial localization seen in mouse tumor Leydig cells. Pharmacological characterization of the receptor and partial nucleotide sequencing of PBR cDNA revealed that the MDA-231 PBR is similar, although not identical, to previously described PBR. Addition of high affinity PBR drug ligands to MDA-231 cells increased the incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into the cells in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a role for PBR in the regulation of MDA-231 cell proliferation. Cholesterol uptake into isolated MDA-231 nuclei was found to be 30% greater than into MCF-7 nuclei. High-affinity PBR drug ligands regulated the levels of cholesterol present in MDA-231 nuclei but not in MCF-7. In addition, the PBR-dependent MDA-231 cell proliferation was found to highly correlate (r = -0.99) with the PBR-mediated changes in nuclear membrane cholesterol levels. In conclusion, these data suggest that PBR expression, nuclear localization, and PBR-mediated cholesterol transport into the nucleus are involved in human breast cancer cell proliferation and aggressive phenotype expression, thus participating in the advancement of the disease. (+info)
Diazepam-binding inhibitor33-50 elicits Ca2+ oscillation and CCK secretion in STC-1 cells via L-type Ca2+ channels.
We recently isolated and characterized 86-amino acid CCK-releasing peptide from porcine intestinal mucosa. The sequence of this peptide is identical to that of porcine diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). Intraduodenal administration of DBI stimulates the CCK release and elicits pancreatic secretion in rats. In this study we utilized a murine tumor cell line (STC-1 cells) that contains CCK to examine if DBI directly acts on these cells to stimulate CCK release. We investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this action. We showed that DBI33-50, a biologically active fragment of DBI1-86, significantly stimulated CCK secretion in STC-1 cells. This action was abolished by Ca2+-free medium. The mean basal intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was 52 nM in fura 2-loaded STC-1 cells. DBI33-50 (1-1,000 nM) elicited Ca2+ oscillations; DBI33-50 (10 nM) increased the oscillation frequency to 5 cycles/10 min and elicited a net [Ca2+]i increase (peak - basal) to 157 nM. In contrast, bombesin and forskolin caused an initial transient [Ca2+]i followed by a small sustained [Ca2+]i plateau. Withdrawal of extracellular Ca2+ abolished Ca2+ oscillations stimulated by DBI33-50. L-type Ca2+ channel blockers nifedipine and diltiazem (3-10 microM) markedly attenuated DBI-stimulated Ca2+ oscillations. In other cell types L-type Ca2+ channels are activated by cAMP-protein kinase A. DBI33-50 failed to stimulate cAMP formation in STC-1 cells. Similarly, DBI33-50 had no effect on myo-inositol 1,4, 5-trisphosphate concentration ([IP3]), whereas bombesin caused an eightfold increase in [IP3] over basal. In addition, inhibitors of phospholipase C (U-73122), phospholipase A2 (ONO-RS-082), and protein tyrosine kinase (genistein) did not alter the Ca2+ oscillations elicited by DBI33-50. It appears that DBI33-50 acts directly on STC-1 cells to elicit Ca2+ oscillations via the voltage-dependent L-type Ca2+ channels, resulting in the secretion of CCK. Mediation of this action is by intracellular mechanisms independent of the traditional signal transduction pathways, including phospholipase C, phospholipase A2, protein tyrosine kinase, and cAMP systems. (+info)
Differential involvement of adrenal and gonadal steroids in anterior and intermediate pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA expression induced by the endogenous benzodiazepine, octadecaneuropeptide, in adult male rats.
The involvement of the endogenous benzodiazepine, octadecaneuropeptide (ODN), in the regulation of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression at the pituitary level, and the influence of adrenal and gonadal steroids, have been studied using a quantitative in situ hybridization technique. I.c.v. injection of ODN (4 micrograms/kg) in sham-operated rats induced a 17 and 7% decrease in the POMC mRNA expression in anterior and intermediate pituitary lobes respectively. To determine the reciprocal involvement of adrenal and gonadal steroids in this regulation, animals were adrenalectomized and/or castrated. Adrenalectomy significantly increased POMC mRNA expression by 48% at the anterior pituitary level, but induced a 10% decrease of hybridization signal at the intermediate pituitary lobe (vs control sham-operated). Adrenal ablation reversed the effect induced by ODN and increased POMC mRNA expression at the anterior and intermediate pituitary levels by 60 and 10% respectively, compared with control sham-operated. By contrast, castration, which produced a decrease in POMC mRNA in the anterior pituitary and an increase in the intermediate lobe, did not modify the negative influence of ODN observed in sham-operated animals. When rats were adrenalectomized and castrated, the adrenalectomy influence was predominant at the anterior pituitary level, since ODN increased significantly the hybridization signal (+68% vs control sham-operated), while the castration influence was predominant at the intermediate pituitary level, since ODN induced an 11% decrease in POMC mRNA signal compared with control sham-operated. These studies indicate that, in vivo, the decrease in POMC mRNA expression in the anterior and intermediate pituitary induced by an endogenous benzodiazepine is differently modulated by adrenal and gonadal steroids, with a predominant influence of adrenal steroids at the anterior pituitary level and gonadal steroids at the intermediate pituitary level. (+info)
Medicinal yeast extracts.
Alcoholic extracts of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) have been used for over 60 years in over-the-counter medications for the treatment of hemorrhoids, burns, and wounds. Although previous studies suggested that small peptides were responsible for the medical observations, the peptides were never resolved into separate fractions and identified. In the present report, a protein fraction was prepared by RPC18 chromatography of the extract which enhances wound closure in both diabetic and non-diabetic littermates. The peptides are active in nanomolar amounts and are 600 times more active than the initial extract. SDS-PAGE and N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified 4 polypeptides in the extract. Three of the proteins were small molecular weight stress-associated proteins: copper, zinc superoxide-dismutase, ubiquitin, and glucose lipid regulated protein (HSP 12). The fourth protein, acyl-CoA binding protein II, has not been previously associated with stress proteins. (+info)
Acyl-coenzyme A binding protein (ACBP).
Acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins are known from a large group of eukaryote species and to bind a long chain length acyl-CoA ester with very high affinity. Detailed biochemical mapping of ligand binding properties has been obtained as well as in-depth structural studies on the bovine apo-protein and of the complex with palmitoyl-CoA using NMR spectroscopy. In the four alpha-helix bundle structure, a set of 21 highly conserved residues present in more that 90% of all known sequences of acyl-coenzyme A binding proteins constitutes three separate mini-cores. These residues are predominantly located at the helix-helix interfaces. From studies of a large set of mutant proteins the role of the conserved residues has been related to structure, function, folding and stability. (+info)
Microsomal fatty acyl-CoA transacylation and hydrolysis: fatty acyl-CoA species dependent modulation by liver fatty acyl-CoA binding proteins.
arachidonoyl-CoA. In summary, the data established for the first time a role for both L-FABP and ACBP in microsomal phosphatidic acid biosynthesis. By preferentially stimulating microsomal transacylation of unsaturated long chain fatty acyl-CoAs while concomitantly exerting their differential protection from microsomal acyl-CoA hydrolase, L-FABP and ACBP can uniquely function in modulating the pattern of fatty acids esterified to phosphatidic acid, the de novo precursor of phospholipids and triacylglycerols. This may explain in part the simultaneous presence of these proteins in cell types involved in fatty acid absorption and lipoprotein secretion. (+info)
Acyl-CoA-binding protein is a potent m-calpain activator.
Acyl-CoA-binding protein, a 20-kDa homodimer that exerts many physiological functions, promotes activation of the classic calpain forms, most markedly that of the m-isozyme. This protein factor was purified from rat skeletal muscle and was also expressed in Escherichia coli. Both native and recombinant acyl-CoA-binding proteins show the same molecular properties and an identical capacity to decrease the [Ca(2+)] required for m-calpain activity. The binding of long-chain acyl-CoAs to acyl-CoA-binding protein does not modify the activating effect on calpains. Acyl-CoA-binding protein seems to be involved in the m-calpain regulation process, whereas the previously identified UK114 activator is a specific modulator of micro-calpain. Acyl-CoA-binding protein is proposed as a new component of the Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic system. A comparative analysis among levels of classic calpains and their activator proteins is also reported. (+info)
Diazepam-binding inhibitor mediates feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion and postprandial release of cholecystokinin.
Recently, we isolated a trypsin-sensitive cholecystokinin-releasing peptide (CCK-RP) from porcine and rat intestinal mucosa. The amino acid sequence of this peptide was determined to be identical to that of the diazepam-binding inhibitor (DBI). To test the role of DBI in pancreatic secretion and responses to feeding, we used pancreaticobiliary and intestinal cannula to divert bile-pancreatic juice from anesthetized rats. Within 2 hours, this treatment caused a 2-fold increase in pancreatic protein output and a >10-fold increase in plasma CCK. Luminal DBI levels increased 4-fold. At 5 hours after diversion of bile-pancreatic juice, each of these measures returned to basal levels. Intraduodenal infusion of peptone evoked a 5-fold increase in the concentration of luminal DBI. In separate studies, we demonstrated that intraduodenal administration of antiserum to a DBI peptide specifically abolished pancreatic secretion and the increase in plasma CCK levels after diversion of bile-pancreatic juice. To demonstrate that DBI mediates the postprandial rise in plasma CCK levels, we showed that intraduodenal administration of 5% peptone induced dramatic increases in pancreatic secretion and plasma CCK, effects that could be blocked by intraduodenal administration of anti-DBI antiserum. Hence, DBI, a trypsin-sensitive CCK-RP secreted from the proximal small bowel, mediates the feedback regulation of pancreatic secretion and the postprandial release of CCK. (+info)