Sequence and structural elements at the 3' terminus of bovine viral diarrhea virus genomic RNA: functional role during RNA replication.
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a member of the genus Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae, has a positive-stranded RNA genome consisting of a single open reading frame and untranslated regions (UTRs) at the 5' and 3' ends. Computer modeling suggested the 3' UTR comprised single-stranded regions as well as stem-loop structures-features that were suspected of being essentially implicated in the viral RNA replication pathway. Employing a subgenomic BVDV RNA (DI9c) that was shown to function as an autonomous RNA replicon (S.-E. Behrens, C. W. Grassmann, H. J. Thiel, G. Meyers, and N. Tautz, J. Virol. 72:2364-2372, 1998) the goal of this study was to determine the RNA secondary structure of the 3' UTR by experimental means and to investigate the significance of defined RNA motifs for the RNA replication pathway. Enzymatic and chemical structure probing revealed mainly the conserved terminal part (termed 3'C) of the DI9c 3' UTR containing distinctive RNA motifs, i.e., a stable stem-loop, SL I, near the RNA 3' terminus and a considerably less stable stem-loop, SL II, that forms the 5' portion of 3'C. SL I and SL II are separated by a long single-stranded intervening sequence, denoted SS. The 3'-terminal four C residues of the viral RNA were confirmed to be single stranded as well. Other intramolecular interactions, e.g., with upstream DI9c RNA sequences, were not detected under the experimental conditions used. Mutagenesis of the DI9c RNA demonstrated that the SL I and SS motifs do indeed play essential roles during RNA replication. Abolition of RNA stems, which ought to maintain the overall folding of SL I, as well as substitution of certain single-stranded nucleotides located in the SS region or SL I loop region, gave rise to DI9c derivatives unable to replicate. Conversely, SL I stems comprising compensatory base exchanges turned out to support replication, but mostly to a lower degree than the original structure. Surprisingly, replacement of a number of residues, although they were previously defined as constituents of a highly conserved stretch of sequence of the SS motif, had little effect on the replication ability of DI9c. In summary, these results indicate that RNA structure as well as sequence elements harbored within the 3'C region of the BVDV 3' UTR create a common cis-acting element of the replication process. The data further point at possible interaction sites of host and/or viral proteins and thus provide valuable information for future experiments intended to identify and characterize these factors. (+info)
Bovine herpes virus expressing envelope protein (E2) of bovine viral diarrhea virus as a vaccine candidate.
The gene encoding the envelope protein (E2) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was expressed under the thymidine kinase (TK) promoter of Korean bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) isolate. Thymidine kinase negative (TK-) BHV-1 recombinants expressing E2 of BVDV were constructed and the expression of E2 was identified by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. Compared to wild type BHV-1, the recombinant BHV-1 had a delayed cytopathogenic effect in cells. The immunogenicity of the recombinant BHV-1 was examined in guinea pigs and cattle. Although an increase in body temperature was detected for a few days, the inoculated cattle returned to normal temperature with the development of neutralizing antibodies to BVDV. (+info)
Experimental infection of calves with bovine viral diarrhea virus genotype II (NY-93).
To ascertain the virulence of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) genotype II, isolate NY-93 was inoculated intranasally into 3 calves, 2 of which were treated with a synthetic glucocorticoid prior to and after virus inoculation. Anorexia, fever (up to 42 C), dyspnea, and hemorrhagic diarrhea developed 6 days after intranasal inoculation with BVDV NY-93. The condition of all calves deteriorated further until the end of the study on day 14 postinoculation. The most significant postmortem macroscopic changes in all calves were limited to the gastrointestinal tract and consisted of moderate to severe congestion of the mucosa with multifocal hemorrhages. Microscopic lesions found in the gastrointestinal tract were similar to those observed in mucosal disease, including degeneration and necrosis of crypt epithelium and necrosis of lymphoid tissue throughout the ileum, colon, and rectum. The basal stratum of the epithelium of tongue, esophagus, and rumen had scattered individual necrotic cells. Spleen and lymph nodes had lymphocytolysis and severe lymphoid depletion. Severe acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia was present in dexamethasone-treated calves. Abundant viral antigen was detected by immunohistochemistry in the squamous epithelium of tongue, esophagus, and forestomachs. BVDV antigen was prominent in cells of the media of small arteries and endothelial cells. The presence of infectious virus in tissues correlated with an absence of circulating neutralizing antibodies. These findings highlight the potential of BVDV genotype II to cause severe disease in normal and stressed cattle. (+info)
Oxidative stress in cells infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus: a crucial step in the induction of apoptosis.
Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) belongs to the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae. Both a noncytopathic (ncp) and an antigenically related cytopathic (cp) BVDV can be isolated from persistently infected animals suffering from mucosal disease. In every case studied so far, the genomic changes leading to the cp biotype correlate with the production of the NS3 nonstructural protein, which, in the ncp biotype, is present in its uncleaved form, NS23. This report shows that, in contrast to ncp BVDV, the cp biotype induces apoptosis in cultured embryonic bovine turbinate cells. Early in the process of apoptosis, cells show a rise in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, which is indicative of oxidative stress. This precedes two hallmarks of apoptosis, caspase activation as shown by cleavage of the caspase substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, and DNA fragmentation. Cells were protected from apoptosis only by certain antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole and ebselen), whereas others (N-acetylcysteine, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, lipoic acid, dihydrolipoic acid and tiron) turned out to be ineffective. Antioxidants that protected cells from apoptosis prevented oxidative stress but failed to block virus growth. These observations suggest that oxidative stress, which occurs early in the interaction between cp BVDV and its host cell, may be a crucial event in the sequence leading to apoptotic cell death. Hence, apoptosis is not required for the multiplication of the cp biotype of BVDV. (+info)
Localization of pestiviral envelope proteins E(rns) and E2 at the cell surface and on isolated particles.
The glycoproteins E(rns) of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and E(rns) and E2 of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) are shown to be located at the surface of infected cells by the use of indirect immunofluorescence and by cytofluorometric analysis. The positive immunostaining of the cell surface was further analysed by immunogold electron microscopy and it could be shown that only extracellular virions were labelled. Gold granules were not seen at the cellular plasma membrane. In contrast to BVDV E2, the CSFV E2 of virions sticking to the plasma membrane was not accessible to the respective monoclonal antibodies. However, CSFV particles isolated from culture supernatant were able to bind both monoclonal anti-E(rns) and anti-E2 antibodies. For CSFV and BVDV, binding of anti-E(rns) antibodies to the virions was more pronounced than that of anti-E2. This finding was unexpected since E2 is considered to be the immunodominant glycoprotein. (+info)
Bovine viral diarrhea virus quasispecies during persistent infection.
Analysis of viral genome sequences from two calves persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus revealed a quasispecies distribution. The sequences encoding the glycoprotein E2 were variable, translating to a number of changes in predicted amino acid sequences. The NS3 region was found to be highly conserved in both animals. The number of E2 clones showing variant amino acids increased with the age of the animal and comparison of the consensus sequences at the different time points confirmed differences in the predicted E2 sequences over time. The immune tolerance that allows the lifelong persistence of this viral infection is highly specific. It is likely that some of the variant viruses generated within these animals will differ antigenically from the persisting virus and be recognized by the immune system. Evidence of an immune response to persisting virus infection was gathered from a larger sample of cattle. Serum neutralizing antibodies were found in 4 of 21 persistently infected animals. Accumulations of viral RNA in the lymph nodes of all animals examined, particularly in the germinal center light zone, may represent antigenic variants held in the form of immune complexes on the processes of follicular dendritic cells. (+info)
Internal initiation of translation of bovine viral diarrhea virus RNA.
Initiation of translation on the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) was reconstituted in vitro from purified translation components to the stage of 48S ribosomal initiation complex formation. Ribosomal binding and positioning on this mRNA to form a 48S complex did not require the initiation factors eIF4A, eIF4B, or eIF4F, and translation of this mRNA was resistant to inhibition by a trans-dominant eIF4A mutant that inhibited cap-mediated initiation of translation. The BVDV IRES contains elements that are bound independently by ribosomal 40S subunits and by eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 3, as well as determinants that mediate direct attachment of 43S ribosomal complexes to the initiation codon. (+info)
Comparison of type I and type II bovine viral diarrhea virus infection in swine.
Some isolates of type II bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) are capable of causing severe clinical disease in cattle. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection has been reported in pigs, but the ability of these more virulent isolates of type II BVDV to induce severe clinical disease in pigs is unknown. It was our objective to compare clinical, virologic, and pathologic findings between type I and type II BVDV infection in pigs. Noninfected control and BVDV-infected 2-month-old pigs were used. A noncytopathic type I and a noncytopathic type II BVDV isolate were chosen for evaluation in feeder age swine based upon preliminary in vitro and in vivo experiments. A dose titration study was performed using 4 groups of 4 pigs for each viral isolate. The groups were inoculated intranasally with either sham (control), 10(3), 10(5), or 10(7) TCID50 of virus. The pigs were examined daily and clinical findings were recorded. Antemortem and postmortem samples were collected for virus isolation. Neither the type I nor type II BVDV isolates resulted in clinical signs of disease in pigs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus was isolated from antemortem and postmortem samples from groups of pigs receiving the 10(5) and the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type I BVDV isolate. In contrast, BVDV was only isolated from postmortem samples in the group of pigs receiving the 10(7) TCID50 dose of the type II BVDV isolate. Type I BVDV was able to establish infection in pigs at lower doses by intranasal instillation than type II BVDV. Infection of pigs with a type II isolate of BVDV known to cause severe disease in calves did not result in clinically apparent disease in pigs. (+info)