Insomnia and global sleep dissatisfaction in Finland. (1/1984)

The purpose of this study is to assess the prevalence of insomnia symptoms and diagnoses in the general population of Finland. A total of 982 participants, aged 18 years or older and representative of the general population of Finland, were interviewed by telephone using the Sleep-EVAL system. The participation rate was 78%. The questionnaire included the assessment of sleep habits, insomnia symptomatology according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV) and International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD), associated and sleep/mental disorders and daytime consequences. The overall prevalence of insomnia symptoms occurring at least three nights per week was 37.6%. Difficulty initiating sleep were mentioned by 11.9% of the sample, difficulty maintaining sleep by 31.6%, early morning awakenings by 11.0% and non-restorative sleep by 7.9% of the sample. Global dissatisfaction with sleep was found in 11.9% of the sample. Daytime consequences (fatigue, mood changes, cognitive difficulties or daytime sleepiness) were reported by 39.9% of participants with insomnia symptoms and 87.6% of those with sleep dissatisfaction. A deterioration of sleep in summer or winter was associated with more complaints of sleep dissatisfaction. Prevalence of any DSM-IV insomnia diagnosis was 11.7%. More specifically, DSM-IV diagnosis of primary insomnia had a prevalence of 1.6% and DSM-IV diagnosis of insomnia related to another mental disorder was at 2.1%. Insomnia was a symptom of another sleep disorder in about 16% of cases and of a mental disorder in about 17% of cases. As reported in other Nordic studies, sleep quality was worse in summer. Insomnia symptomatology was common and was reported by more than a third of Finnish participants. Compared with other European countries studied with the same methodology (France, the UK, Germany, and Italy), the prevalence of DSM-IV insomnia diagnosis was 1.5 to two times higher in Finland.  (+info)

Primary and secondary substance misusers: do they differ in substance-induced and substance-independent mental disorders? (2/1984)

AIMS: This study evaluated the primary/secondary distinction among substance misusers according to comorbid mental disorders. METHODS: A consecutive sample (n = 287) of DSM-IV substance dependents from public treatment facilities in two counties in Norway were assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. According to the debut of the first independent mental disorder, patients were divided into primary substance use disorder (SUD) (17%), secondary SUD (76%) and SUD in the same year as the first mental disorder (7%). RESULTS: A lifetime substance-independent mental disorder was found in 90%. Forty-two per cent had a combination of substance-independent and substance-induced mental disorders. Five per cent had substance-induced mental disorders only. Primary SUD patients comprised less women, and a lower number of substance-independent mental disorders. Secondary SUD patients had more major depression, phobic disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder. There were no differences between primary SUD and secondary SUD regarding the number of substance-induced disorders or the pattern of substance misuse. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical differences between primary and secondary SUD were small and do not support the distinction.  (+info)

Central pontine myelinolysis associated with hypokalaemia in anorexia nervosa. (3/1984)

A 31-year-old man was admitted to hospital with of anorexia, binge eating, and self induced vomiting. On admission, he showed a pronounced low weight and disturbance of the body image and was diagnosed as having anorexia nervosa. In addition, electrolyte abnormalities, mainly hypokalaemia, and increased serum renin and aldosterone concentrations were recorded, suggesting pseudo-Bartter syndrome as a complication. Under frequent monitoring of the serum potassium and sodium concentrations, serum electrolytes were gradually corrected, but brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed reversible central pontine myelinolysis (CPM). Although attention has been mainly paid to the association of CPM with rapid correction of hyponatraemia and abnormal osmolality, this case report strongly suggested the involvement of hypokalaemia in the pathogenesis of CPM.  (+info)

Sleep complaints are not corroborated by objective sleep measures in post-traumatic stress disorder: a 1-year prospective study in survivors of motor vehicle crashes. (4/1984)

Disturbed sleep is a common complaint among patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, laboratory studies of sleep in PTSD have provided inconsistent evidence of objective sleep disturbances. A major shortcoming of most previous studies is the fact that they were performed retrospectively in patients with chronic PTSD, often complicated by comorbid psychiatric disorders and drug abuse. Thus, little is known about the development of sleep disturbances in recently traumatized subjects. In this study, 102 motor vehicle collision (MVC) survivors were followed from the time of collision throughout 1 year. Nineteen subjects hospitalized for elective surgery served as a comparison group. Subjective quality of sleep was assessed using the mini-Sleep Questionnaire and the Sleep Habit Questionnaire. In addition, a 48-h actigraphic recording was obtained 1 week, 3 and 12 months after the collision. At 12 months, a structured clinical interview (SCID) was administered to reach a formal diagnosis of PTSD. Twenty-six of the MVC survivors, but none of the comparison subjects, met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD. While MVC survivors with PTSD reported markedly poorer sleep as reflected by significantly higher scores on the mini-Sleep Questionnaire, there were no significant differences between the three groups on the actigraphic measures that were largely normal. These results, which were obtained in subjects with no evidence of active psychiatric symptoms at the time of trauma and free of psychotropic or hypnotic medications, further support previous polysomnographic (PSG) studies suggesting that altered sleep perception, rather than sleep disturbance per se, may be the key problem in PTSD.  (+info)

Assessment and management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults. (5/1984)

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is estimated to affect 2%-6% of adults. The symptoms in adults with ADHD mirror those in children with the disorder and are associated with significant educational, occupational and interpersonal difficulties. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials have established that adult ADHD is responsive to stimulant medication treatment. New medications and psychotherapeutic approaches are being developed in an effort to achieve optimal treatment effects in this population. We review the available literature and provide an approach to the assessment and management of ADHD in adults.  (+info)

Amisulpride: is there a treatment for negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients? (6/1984)

In this article we report on a meta-analysis of the published studies of amisulpride conducted in order to demonstrate efficacy on primary negative symptoms in schizophrenia. Four placebo-controlled studies were conducted in patients with predominantly negative symptoms. In all studies a significant improvement was observed on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) in the amisulpride groups (50-300 mg daily) as compared to placebo. The improvement on the SANS was not accompanied by a simultaneous improvement on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) or a decrease in extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) in three of the four studies, indicating a genuine effect on primary negative symptoms. The overall analysis shows that the improvement on the SANS was accompanied by a small simultaneous improvement on the SAPS. Moreover, in the studies where depressive symptoms were measured, a significant improvement was also shown in favor of amisulpride. However, as the SAPS and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) baseline scores were rather low, the improvement on both scales in favor of amisulpride is probably not responsible for the improvement on the SANS. A positive correlation was found between the severity on the mean SANS score at baseline and mean improvement at endpoint, and a surprisingly high success rate was observed in the placebo groups, indicating either that primary negative symptoms are not as persistent as had previously been thought, or that the concept of primary negative symptoms should be reconsidered. Probably amisulpride is efficacious on these nonenduring primary negative symptoms.  (+info)

Increased early life stress and depressive symptoms in patients with comorbid substance abuse and schizophrenia. (7/1984)

Early adverse events have been associated with increased rates of substance abuse and depression. To investigate the association between early adverse events and comorbid substance abuse in schizophrenia patients, early life stress, depressive symptoms, positive and negative symptoms, anxiety, and cognitive function were measured in an age-, sex-, and race-matched sample of 40 schizophrenia patients with and without comorbid substance abuse. Compared to patients without substance abuse, patients with schizophrenia and a history of substance abuse had a significantly higher incidence of early life trauma, as well as significantly higher scores on the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression and the Psychiatric Epidemiology Research Interview Life Events Scale. No differences between groups were found in positive or negative symptoms, anxiety, or cognitive function. The results emphasize the importance of early life stress and affective symptoms and their potential relationship to substance abuse disorders in schizophrenia patients.  (+info)

Motivations that maintain substance use among individuals with psychotic disorders. (8/1984)

This study quantitatively examined reasons for substance use among individuals with psychotic disorders and explored the relationship of these reasons to substance use problems and dependence. Sixty-nine people with psychotic disorders were interviewed using a battery of questionnaires called the Substance Use Scale for Psychosis (SUSP). Symptoms and medication side effects were also measured. A factor analysis revealed similar motives for substance use (mostly alcohol and cannabis use) as in the general population: "enhancement," "social motives," "coping with unpleasant affect," and "conformity and acceptance." A fifth factor, "relief of positive symptoms and side effects," demonstrated limited reliability. "Coping" and "enhancement" motives were found to lead to substance use problems and dependence. Mediator analysis indicated that worse symptoms lead to stronger motives for substance use, which in turn lead to stronger psychological dependence on that substance. These findings have the potential to inform effective treatment for substance use in psychosis.  (+info)