(1/453) Diacylglycerol kinase theta binds to and is negatively regulated by active RhoA.
Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) phosphorylates the second messenger diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. To date, very little is known about the regulation of DGK activity. We have previously identified the DGKtheta isotype, which is predominantly expressed in brain (Houssa, B., Schaap, D., van der Wal, J., Goto, K., Kondo, H., Yamakawa, A., Shibata, M., Takenawa, T., and Van Blitterswijk, W. J. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 10422-10428). We now report that DGKtheta binds specifically to activated RhoA in transfected COS cells as well as in nontransfected neuronal N1E-115 cells. Binding is abolished by a point mutation (Y34N) in the effector loop of RhoA. DGKtheta does not bind to inactive RhoA, nor to the other Rho-family GTPases, Rac or Cdc42. Like active RhoA, DGKtheta localizes to the plasma membrane. Strikingly, the binding of activated RhoA to DGKtheta completely inhibits DGK catalytic activity. Our results suggest that DGKtheta is a downstream effector of RhoA and that its activity is negatively regulated by RhoA. Through accumulation of newly produced diacylglycerol, RhoA-mediated inhibition of DGKtheta may lead to enhanced PKC activity in response to external stimuli. (+info)
(2/453) Differential potency of two crosslinking plant lectins to induce formation of haptenic-sugar-resistant aggregates of rat thymocytes by post-binding signaling.
To evaluate the significance of post-binding events for stable aggregate formation, the aggregation/dissociation of rat thymocytes initiated by two crosslinking plant lectins, namely concanavalin A (Con A) and Solanum tuberosum agglutinin (STA), were comparatively studied. Despite intimate cell contacts in the aggregates only Con A led to establishment of haptenic-sugar-resistant (HSR) complexes. The presence of inhibitor II of diacylglycerol kinase, a dual calmodulin antagonist/protein kinase C inhibitor (trifluoperazine), and a sulfhydryl group reagent (N-ethylmaleimide) impaired this process. The obtained results indicate that the formation of HSR cellular contacts is not an automatic response to lectin-dependent cell association. In contrast to STA, Con A binding elicits this reaction with involvement of diacylglycerol kinase, protein kinase C and/or calmodulin as well as thiol level perturbation, as inferred by the application of target-selective inhibitors. (+info)
(3/453) Interleukin-2 causes an increase in saturated/monounsaturated phosphatidic acid derived from 1,2-diacylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-acylglycerol.
Phosphatidic acid generation through activation of diacylglycerol kinase alpha has been implicated in interleukin-2-dependent T-lymphocyte proliferation. To investigate this lipid signaling in more detail, we characterized the molecular structures of the diradylglycerols and phosphatidic acids in the murine CTLL-2 T-cell line under both basal and stimulated conditions. In resting cells, 1,2-diacylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-acylglycerol subtypes represented 44 and 55% of total diradylglycerol, respectively, and both showed a highly saturated profile containing primarily 16:0 and 18:1 fatty acids. 1-O-Alk-1'-enyl-2-acylglycerol represented 1-2% of total diradylglycerol. Interleukin-2 stimulation did not alter the molecular species profiles, however, it did selectively reduce total 1-O-alkyl-2-acylglycerol by over 50% at 15 min while only causing a 10% drop in 1,2-diacylglycerol. When radiolabeled CTLL-2 cells were challenged with interleukin-2, no change in the cellular content of phosphatidylcholine nor phosphatidylethanolamine was observed thereby ruling out phospholipase C activity as the source of diradylglycerol. In addition, interleukin-2 failed to stimulate de novo synthesis of diradylglycerol. Structural analysis revealed approximately equal amounts of 1,2-diacyl phosphatidic acid and 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl phosphatidic acid under resting conditions, both containing only saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. After acute (2 and 15 min) interleukin-2 stimulation the total phosphatidic acid mass increased, almost entirely through the formation of 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl species. In vitro assays revealed that both 1,2-diacylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-acylglycerol were substrates for 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase alpha, the major isoform in CTLL-2 cells, and that the lipid kinase activity was almost totally inhibited by R59949. In conclusion, this investigation shows that, in CTLL-2 cells, 1,2-diacylglycerol kinase alpha specifically phosphorylates a pre-existing pool of 1-O-alkyl-2-acylglycerol to form the intracellular messenger 1-O-alkyl-2-acyl phosphatidic acid. (+info)
(4/453) Diacylglycerol kinase inhibition prevents IL-2-induced G1 to S transition through a phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase-independent mechanism.
Stimulation via IL-2R ligation causes T lymphocytes to transit through the cell cycle. Previous experiments by our group have demonstrated that, in human T cells, IL-2 binding induces phosphatidic acid production through activation of the alpha isoform of diacylglycerol kinase. In this study, using the IL-2-dependent mouse T cell line CTLL-2, we demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of IL-2-induced diacylglycerol kinase activation is found to block IL-2-induced late G1 to S transition without affecting cell viability. Herein, we demonstrate that diacylglycerol kinase inhibition has a profound effect on the induction of the protooncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and c-raf by IL-2, whereas expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL are not affected. When the IL-2-regulated cell cycle control checkpoints are examined in detail, we demonstrate that inhibition of diacylglycerol kinase activation prevents IL-2 induction of cyclin D3 without affecting p27 down-regulation. The strict control of cell proliferation exerted by phosphatidic acid through activation of diacylglycerol kinase is independent of other well-characterized IL-2R-derived signals, such as the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt pathway, indicating the existence of a different and important mechanism to control cell division. (+info)
(5/453) Pleiotropic alterations in lipid metabolism in yeast sac1 mutants: relationship to "bypass Sec14p" and inositol auxotrophy.
SacIp dysfunction results in bypass of the requirement for phosphatidylinositol transfer protein (Sec14p) function in yeast Golgi processes. This effect is accompanied by alterations in inositol phospholipid metabolism and inositol auxotrophy. Elucidation of how sac1 mutants effect "bypass Sec14p" will provide insights into Sec14p function in vivo. We now report that, in addition to a dramatic accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate, sac1 mutants also exhibit a specific acceleration of phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis via the CDP-choline pathway. This phosphatidylcholine metabolic phenotype is sensitive to the two physiological challenges that abolish bypass Sec14p in sac1 strains; i.e. phospholipase D inactivation and expression of bacterial diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase. Moreover, we demonstrate that accumulation of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate in sac1 mutants is insufficient to effect bypass Sec14p. These data support a model in which phospholipase D activity contributes to generation of DAG that, in turn, effects bypass Sec14p. A significant fate for this DAG is consumption by the CDP-choline pathway. Finally, we determine that CDP-choline pathway activity contributes to the inositol auxotrophy of sac1 strains in a novel manner that does not involve obvious defects in transcriptional expression of the INO1 gene. (+info)
(6/453) The role of protein kinase C activation in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular complications.
Many vascular diseases in diabetes are known to be associated with the activation of the diacylglycerol (DAG)-protein kinase C (PKC) pathway. The major source of DAG that is elevated in diabetes is de novo synthesis from glycolytic intermediates. Among the various PKC isoforms, the beta-isoform has been shown to be persistently activated in diabetic animals. Multiple lines of evidence have shown that many vascular alterations in diabetes--such as a decrease in the activity of Na+-K+-adenosine triphosphatase (Na+-K+-ATPase), and increases in extracellular matrix, cytokines, permeability, contractility, and cell proliferation--are caused by activation of PKC. Inhibition of PKC by two different kinds of PKC inhibitors, LY333531, a selective PKC-beta-isoform inhibitor, and d-alpha-tocopherol, were able to prevent or reverse the various vascular dysfunctions in diabetic rats. These results have also provided in vivo evidence that DAG-PKC activation could be responsible for the hyperglycemia-induced vascular dysfunctions in diabetes. Clinical studies are now being performed to clarify the pathogenic roles of the DAG-PKC pathway in developing vascular complications in diabetic patients. (+info)
(7/453) Activation of human neutrophil NADPH oxidase by phosphatidic acid or diacylglycerol in a cell-free system. Activity of diacylglycerol is dependent on its conversion to phosphatidic acid.
The superoxide-generating neutrophil NADPH oxidase can be activated in cell-free reconstitution systems by several agonists, most notably arachidonic acid and the detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate. In this study, we show that both phosphatidic acids and diacylglycerols can serve separately as potent, physiologic activators of NADPH oxidase in a cell-free system. Stimulation of superoxide generation by these lipids was dependent upon both Mg(2+) and agonist concentration. Activation of NADPH oxidase by phosphatidic acids did not appear to require their conversion to corresponding diacylglycerols by phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, since diacylglycerols were much slower than phosphatidic acids to activate the system and required the presence of ATP. Stimulation of the oxidase by dioctanoylglycerol proved to be by a means other than the activation of protein kinase C. Instead, dioctanoylglycerol was converted to dioctanoylphosphatidic acid by an endogenous diacylglycerol kinase present in the cell-free reaction system. This conversion was sensitive to the diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor R59949 and explains the markedly slower kinetics of activation and the novel ATP requirement seen with dioctanoylglycerol. The level of dioctanoylphosphatidic acid formed was suboptimal for NADPH oxidase activation but could synergize with the unmetabolized dioctanoylglycerol to activate superoxide generation. (+info)
(8/453) Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-mediated increase in the mass of phosphatidic acid and 1,2-diacylglycerol in ischemic rat heart.
OBJECTIVE: 1,2-Diacylglycerol (1,2-DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) are produced by phospholipase C and D activity and play a key role as second messengers in receptor-mediated signal transduction. So far, little is known about alterations of endogenous 1,2-DAG and PA production during myocardial ischemia. METHODS: Rat isolated perfused hearts were subjected to global ischemia, total lipids were extracted, and separated by thin-layer chromatography. The mass of PA and 1,2-DAG were quantified using laserdensitometric analysis of visualized lipids. RESULTS: Compared to normoxic control values (1,2-DAG 713 +/- 45 ng/mg protein, PA 171 +/- 11 ng/mg protein), the myocardial content of 1,2-DAG and PA was unaltered after 10 min of ischemia. Prolonged myocardial ischemia (20 min), however, which was accompanied by marked overflow of endogenous norepinephrine, significantly increased the mass of both second messengers (1,2-DAG 1062 +/- 100 ng/mg protein, PA 340 +/- 29 ng/mg protein). The increase in PA and 1,2-DAG in response to ischemia was abolished by inhibition of ischemia-induced norepinephrine release as well as by alpha1-adrenergic blockade but unaffected by beta-adrenergic blockade. While inhibition of diacylglycerol kinase did not affect ischemia-induced increase in PA and 1,2-DAG, inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C activity significantly suppressed ischemia-induced increase in 1,2-DAG but did not affect endogenous production of PA indicating phospholipase C-independent formation of PA and activation of both, phospholipase C and D, in the ischemic heart. CONCLUSIONS: Ischemia elicits an alpha1-adrenergic receptor-mediated increase in the mass of myocardial PA and 1,2-DAG. The increase in endogenous PA is suggested to be due to the activation of myocardial phospholipase D, whereas 1,2-DAG is formed predominantly by activation of phospholipase C in the ischemic heart. (+info)