(1/2090) Abysmal prognosis of patients with type 2 diabetes entering dialysis.
INTRODUCTION: The importance of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (type II diabetes) as a leading cause of end-stage renal disease is now widely recognized. The purpose of this study was to assess life-prognosis and its predictors in a cohort of patients newly entering dialysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-four consecutive type II diabetes patients (40% of all patients) starting dialysis between 01/01/95 and 31/12/96 were studied retrospectively, focusing on clinical data at inception and life-prognosis after a mean follow-up of 211 days. Patients were divided into three groups, according to onset of renal failure: acute 11% (9/84), chronic 61% (51/84) and acutely aggravated chronic renal failure 28% (25/84). RESULTS: Patients (mean age 67 years) had long-standing diabetes (mean duration approximately 15 years), heavy proteinuria (approximately 3 g/24h) and diabetic retinopathy (67%). The average creatinine clearance (Cockcroft's formula) was 13 ml/min. Cardiovascular diseases were highly prevalent at the start of dialysis: history of myocardial infarction (26%), angina (36%) and acute left ventricular dysfunction (67%). More than 80% of the patients underwent the first session dialysis under emergency conditions, a situation in part related to late referral to the nephrology division (63% for chronic patients). A great majority of the patients were overhydrated when starting dialysis, as evidenced by the average weight loss of 6 kg, during the first month of dialysis, required to reach dry weight. Nearly 64% of the patients presented high blood pressure (> 140/90 mmHg) when starting dialysis despite antihypertensive therapy (mean: 2.3 drugs). The outcome of this type II diabetes population was dramatic: 32% (27/84) died after a mean follow-up of 211 days, mostly from cardiovascular diseases. The rate of recovery of renal function was low in both the acute and the acutely aggravated renal failure group (30% and 24%, respectively). Of note, iatrogenic nephrotoxic agents accounted for renal function impairment in nearly 30% of patients. CONCLUSION: Our observational study illustrates the high burden of cardiovascular diseases contrasting with sub-optimal cardiovascular therapeutic interventions in type II diabetes patients entering dialysis. Factors aggravating renal failure were mainly iatrogenic, and therefore largely avoidable. Late referral generally implied a poor clinical condition at the start of dialysis. (+info)
(2/2090) Paraoxonase 192 Gln/Arg gene polymorphism, coronary artery disease, and myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetes.
Paraoxonase is an HDL-associated enzyme implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis by protecting lipoproteins against peroxidation. Its biallelic gene polymorphism at codon 192 (glutamine/arginine) has been associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). To further evaluate the role of this paraoxonase gene polymorphism for CAD in type 2 diabetes, we determined the paraoxonase genotype in 288 type 2 diabetic patients (170 with and 118 without angiographically documented CAD). The paraoxonase 192 Gln/Arg genotype was assessed using polymerase chain reaction followed by AlwI digestion. The frequency of the Gln allele was 0.656 in the CAD patients and 0.746 in the controls (chi2 = 5.36, P = 0.02). Compared with the Gln/Gln genotypes, the age-adjusted odds ratio for CAD was 1.78 (95% CI 1.08-2.96, P = 0.02) in subjects carrying at least one Arg allele. In the multivariate analysis, this association was even stronger after correction for the possible confounders age, sex, smoking history, and hypertension. Among current and former smokers, the odds ratio (OR) for having CAD among patients with at least one Arg allele was 3.58 (1.45-9.53, P < 0.01). The paraoxonase Arg allele was not associated with the history of myocardial infarction (OR 1.20 [0.73-1.99, NS]), but was with the extent of CAD (OR for three-vessel disease 1.92 [1.15-3.27, P = 0.01]). Our data indicate that the 192 Arg allele of the human paraoxonase gene is a risk factor for CAD but not myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients, a risk factor further modified by cigarette smoking. This risk could possibly be explained by a reduced ability of the paraoxonase Arg isoform to protect lipoproteins against peroxidation. (+info)
(3/2090) Role of systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides in diabetic peripheral arterial disease. The Edinburgh Artery Study.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in a diabetic population and to examine whether different levels of these risk factors might explain why diabetic subjects have an increased risk of PAD compared with normal glucose tolerance subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: There were 1,592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected at random from the age-sex registers of 11 general practices in Edinburgh, Scotland. Subjects underwent a comprehensive medical examination, including assessment for PAD (intermittent claudication on World Health Organization questionnaire or major asymptomatic disease on noninvasive testing) and a glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: Of the subjects, 288 (18.7%) were found to have diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). The prevalence of PAD was greater in those with diabetes/IGT (20.6%) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance (12.5%) (odds ratio [OR] 1.64, 95% CI 1.17-2.31). Among the diabetes/IGT group, mean levels of smoking, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides were higher in subjects with PAD than in those without PAD (P < or = 0.05). Mean levels of systolic blood pressure and plasma triglycerides were also higher in diabetic subjects than in nondiabetic subjects with PAD (P < or = 0.05). In multivariate analysis, those with diabetes/IGT no longer had a significantly higher risk of PAD after adjusting separately for systolic blood pressure (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.85-1.73) and plasma triglycerides (OR 1.26, 95% CI 0.89-1.79). Simultaneous adjustment for both systolic blood pressure and triglycerides reduced the risk of PAD among diabetic subjects to 1.11 (95% CI 0.78-1.58). CONCLUSIONS: Increased mean levels of triglycerides and systolic blood pressure may help to explain the higher prevalence of PAD in diabetic subjects compared with that in normal glucose tolerance subjects. (+info)
(4/2090) Increased frequency of G-protein beta 3-subunit 825 T allele in dialyzed patients with type 2 diabetes.
BACKGROUND: A polymorphism (C825T) in exon 10 of the gene encoding the beta 3 subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins (GN beta 3) has recently been described, and the T allele was found to be associated with late-onset hypertension. Because hypertension is a known risk factor for the development of clinically manifest progressive renal disease, we examined the C825T polymorphism in older hemodialysis patients suffering from nondiabetic renal disease or type 2 diabetes with presumed diabetic nephropathy, respectively, and in older healthy controls. METHODS: Genotyping was performed by polymerase chain reaction, followed by restriction enzyme analysis. RESULTS: The study showed that the frequency of the T allele in the nondiabetic patients on dialysis (0.232) was significantly (P < 0.03) lower than in older healthy controls (0.293). In contrast, the frequency was significantly (P < 0.02) higher in older patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis. No significant change in T-allele frequency was noted in older patients with type 2 diabetes without microangiopathy (0.286). The odds ratios for patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis versus nondiabetic patients on dialysis were 3.24 (1.3 to 7.9, P < 0.00079) for TT/CC and 1.82 (1.07 to 3.09, P < 0.02) for CT/CC. The respective odds ratios for patients with type 2 diabetes on dialysis versus controls were 2.05 (1.07 to 3.9, P < 0.028) for CT/CC and 1.216 (0.79 to 1.87; P < 0.37) for CT/CC. CONCLUSION: The data do not support a role of the hypertension-associated T allele in the genesis of dialysis-dependent end-stage renal failure in general, but are compatible with a specific role of the T allele in the development or progression of diabetic nephropathy. (+info)
(5/2090) Hypertension in diet versus pharmacologically treated diabetics: mortality over a 5-year follow-up.
The natural history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) differs markedly between patients with diet treated and pharmacologically treated disease. However, the interrelationship between hypertension and these common diabetes types has not been specifically addressed in previous studies. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic significance and prevalence of hypertension in coronary patients with diet versus pharmacologically treated NIDDM over a 5-year follow-up period. The study sample comprised 11 515 patients aged 45 to 74 years with a previous myocardial infarction and/or anginal syndrome who had been screened but were not included in the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention study. Among them, 9033 were nondiabetics and 2482, diabetics (987 diet treated and 1495 pharmacologically treated). The prevalence of hypertension among nondiabetics, diet-treated diabetics, and pharmacologically treated diabetics was 31%, 42%, and 43%, respectively. Crude all-cause mortality (CM) was lower in the nondiabetic patients (11.2% versus 22.0%; P<0.001). Among diabetics, 548 patients died: 81 diet treated normotensives (CM 14%); 100 diet-treated hypertensives (CM 24.4%); 205 pharmacologically treated normotensives (CM 24.2%); and 162 pharmacologically treated hypertensive patients (CM 25.0%). Age-adjusted mortality was lowest for the normotensive patients in the diet-treated group and highest for the hypertensive pharmacologically treated patients. Multivariate analysis shows that hypertension is a strong and independent predictor of increased CM in diet-treated but not in pharmacologically treated NIDDM: hazard ratio (HR) was 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.24 to 2.29) for the diet-treated versus 1. 01 (95% CI 0.82 to 1.26) for the pharmacologically treated diabetics. The contribution of hypertension to stroke mortality was substantial for both diet treated and pharmacologically treated NIDDM: hazard ratios were 3.17 (95% CI 1.12 to 8.98) and 2.21 (95% CI 0.72 to 6.77), respectively. The increased risk of mortality associated with hypertension in relatively mild diet-treated NIDDM strongly supports the clinical benefit of early blood pressure control among diabetic patients with ischemic heart disease. (+info)
(6/2090) The Trp64Arg amino acid polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene does not contribute to the genetic susceptibility of diabetic microvascular complications in Caucasian type 1 diabetic patients.
OBJECTIVE: The beta3-adrenergic receptor is involved in regulation of microvascular blood flow. A missense mutation (Trp64Arg) in the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene has been suggested as a risk factor for proliferative retinopathy in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of this polymorphism to the development of microangiopathic complications in Caucasian type 1 diabetic patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the relationship between the Trp64Arg polymorphism in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (204 men/132 women, age 42.8 +/- 11.0 years, diabetes duration 28 +/- 9 years) and in type 1 diabetic patients with persistent normoalbuminuria (118 men/73 women, age 42.6 +/- 10.2 years, diabetes duration 27 +/- 8 years). Proliferative retinopathy was present in 254 patients (48%), while 66 patients (13%) had no diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS: There were no differences in Trp64Arg genotype distribution between type 1 diabetic patients with diabetic nephropathy and type 1 diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria: 295 (88%)/38 (11%)/3 (1%) vs 161 (84%)/30 (16%)/- had Trp/Trp, Trp/Arg or Arg/Arg genotype respectively. Odds ratio (95% CI) of nephropathy in carriers of the mutation was 0.75 (0.45-1.25). No associations between the Trp64Arg polymorphism and simplex or proliferative retinopathy were revealed either. The frequency of the Arg-allele was 0.069 in patients with proliferative retinopathy, 0.066 in patients with simplex retinopathy and 0.090 in patients with no signs of diabetic retinopathy, NS. CONCLUSIONS: The Trp64Arg polymorphism of the beta3-adrenergic receptor gene does not contribute to the genetic susceptibility to diabetic nephropathy in Caucasian type 1 diabetic patients. Nor does our study support previous findings of an association between this variant and proliferative retinopathy. (+info)
(7/2090) Influence of diabetes on revascularisation procedures of the aorta and lower limb arteries: early results.
OBJECT: to evaluate the influence of diabetes mellitus on the therapeutic indications and the one-month results in patients with occlusive disease of the aorta and/or lower limbs arteries. MATERIAL: a retrospective study of fully computerised data of 1003 patients (753 men, 250 women) admitted consecutively to our vascular surgery unit over a 5-year period (1992-1996). Of the total, 169 were diabetics (group I) and 834 were non-diabetics (group II). Sixty-two per cent of patients in group I vs. 40% in group II presented with critical ischaemia or trophic changes (p<0.001). RESULTS: 15.4% of patients in group I vs. 4.1% in group II had primary amputation because of irreversible ischaemia or because arterial reconstruction was impossible. Of those who underwent revascularisation, 80% were infrainguinal in group I vs. 50% in group II. Forty-five per cent of patients in group I and 37% in group II had a percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and approximately 3% in both groups had a combination of the two techniques. At one month, patients alive without major amputation numbered 64.4% in group I vs. 93.6% in group II, patients alive with major amputation numbered 26.6% in group I vs. 5.5% in group II, and mortality rates were 8.9% in group I vs. 0.8% in group II (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: the 5-times higher amputation and 10-times higher mortality rates for diabetics compared to non-diabetics call for better collaborative management of diabetics between general practitioners, vascular surgeons, diabetologists and cardiologists. PTA with a 90% initial success rate is indicated for short lesions even in the presence of limited gangrene. (+info)
(8/2090) Hyperglycemia-induced vasculopathy in the murine vitelline vasculature: correlation with PECAM-1/CD31 tyrosine phosphorylation state.
Maternal diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased incidence of congenital abnormalities as well as embryonic and perinatal lethality. In particular, a wide range of cardiovascular abnormalities have been noted in children of diabetic mothers and in the offspring of diabetic animals. The vascular system is the first organ system to develop in the embryo and is critical for normal organogenesis. The organization of mesodermal cells into endothelial and hematopoietic cells and into a complex vascular system is, in part, mediated by a series of specific cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-factor interactions. PECAM-1 expression has been observed during the earliest stages of vasculogenesis, and changes in PECAM-1 tyrosine phosphorylation have been associated with endothelial cell migration, vasculogenesis, and angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. In this report we demonstrate that exposure to hyperglycemia during gastrulation causes yolk sac and embryonic vasculopathy in cultured murine conceptuses and in the conceptuses of streptozotocin-induced diabetic pregnant mice. In addition, we correlate the presence of yolk sac and embryonic vasculopathy with the failure of PECAM-1 tyrosine dephosphorylation during the formation of blood islands/vessels from clusters of extra-embryonic and embryonic angioblasts in the murine conceptus using both in vitro and in vivo models. The importance of these findings in the development of vasculopathy in the offspring of diabetic mothers and the potential effects and benefits of glucose regulation during the periods of vasculogenesis/angiogenesis in embryonic development are discussed. (+info)