Effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of fortification on the osmolality of human milk. METHODS: The osmolality of 47 samples of human milk was determined at baseline, just after, and 24 hours after supplementation with five different human milk fortifiers (HMF) at 4 degrees C. RESULTS: Ten minutes after HMF supplementation the osmolality of human milk was significantly higher than the sum of the respective values of HMF dissolved in water and human milk, measured separately at baseline (p<0.0001), with the exception of the HMF containing only proteins. After 24 hours a further increase in osmolality was observed. Linear regression analysis showed that total dextrin content (r=0.84) was the main determinant of the increase. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk and HMF interact to induce a rapid increase in osmolality higher than would be expected from composition alone. This rise could be explained by the amylase activity of human milk, inducing hydrolysis of the dextrin content of HMF, leading to small osmotically active molecules of oligosaccharides. The high osmolality of fortified human milk should be considered in the nutritional management of preterm infants. (+info)
Anti-Kaposi's sarcoma and antiangiogenic activities of sulfated dextrins.
Delivery of the sulfated polysaccharide dextrin 2-sulfate by the intraperitoneal route to the lymphatic circulation resulted in a clinically significant improvement in Kaposi's sarcoma in three patients. Our in vitro studies show that although sulfated dextrins do not interfere with the growth of isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, they do inhibit the morphological differentiation of endothelial cells into tubes as well as reduce new vessel formation in a placental angiogenesis assay. The antiangiogenic effect of dextrin 6-sulfate is greater than that of dextrin 2-sulfate and is independent of their anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activities. (+info)
Enhancement of swimming endurance in mice by highly branched cyclic dextrin.
We investigated the ergogenic effect in mice of administering highly branched cyclic dextrin (HBCD), a new type of glucose polymer, on the swimming endurance in an adjustable-current swimming pool. Male Std ddY mice were administered a HBCD, a glucose solution or water via a stomach sonde 10 min before, 10 min after or 30 min after beginning swimming exercise, and were then obliged to swim in the pool. The total swimming period until exhaustion, an index of the swimming endurance, was measured. An ergogenic effect of HBCD was observed at a dose of 500 mg/kg of body weight, whereas it had no effect at a dose of 166 mg/kg of body wt (p < 0.05). The mice administered with the HBCD solution 10 min after starting the exercise were able to swim significantly longer (p < 0.05) than the mice who had ingested water or the glucose solution. The rise in mean blood glucose level in the mice administered with HBCD, which was measured 20 min after starting swimming, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in the mice administered with glucose, although it was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in the mice administered with water. The mean blood insulin rise in the mice given HBCD was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than that in the mice given glucose. The mice administered with HBCD 30 min after starting the exercise swam significantly longer (p < 0.05) than the mice who had ingested water, although the enhancement of swimming time was similar to that of the glucose-ingesting mice. The gastric emptying rate of the HBCD solution was significantly faster (p < 0.05) than that of the glucose solution. However, this glucose polymer must have spent more time being absorbed because it has to be hydrolyzed before absorption, reflecting a lower and possibly longer-lasting blood glucose level. We conclude that the prolongation of swimming endurance in mice administered with HBCD depended on its rapid and longer-lasting ability for supplying glucose with a lower postprandial blood insulin response, leading to a delayed onset of fatigue. (+info)
Computer simulations of ultrafiltration profiles for an icodextrin-based peritoneal fluid in CAPD.
BACKGROUND: The three-pore model of peritoneal transport has the ability to predict ultrafiltration (UF) profiles rather accurately, even when high molecular weight (MW) solutes are employed as osmotic agents in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In the present simulations, we wanted to assess, for various theoretical perturbations, the UF properties of a peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution with an osmotic agent having an average MW of 20 kD and a "number average MW" of 6.2 kD, which is similar to that of icodextrin (ICO). METHODS: For a PD solution containing a completely monodispersed 20 kD MW osmotic agent, the degree of UF modeled is much higher than that reported for ICO. Hence, to model the behavior of ICO, we subdivided the ICO molecules into eight or more different MW size fractions. For simulations using six or eight subfractions, we obtained an excellent fit of simulated to reported UF data. More dispersed solutions produced UF profiles similar to that with eight fractions. RESULTS: A 2.05 L 7.5% ICO PD solution, despite being slightly hypotonic, yielded a UF volume of nearly 600 mL in 12 hours, modeled for patients not previously exposed for ICO. After nine hours, the UF volume exceeded that produced by 3.86% glucose. The UF rate and volumes increased in proportion to (1) the ICO concentration, (2) the peritoneal surface area, and (3) the peritoneal UF coefficient, but was almost insensitive to increases in the instilled fluid volume. Simulated for patients previously exposed to ICO, having steady-state plasma concentrations of ICO degradation products, the predicted UF volume at 12 hours was reduced to approximately 400 mL. CONCLUSION: Employing the three-pore model of peritoneal transport and taking into account the polydispersed nature of ICO, it was possible to accurately computer simulate the UF profiles of ICO in accordance with reported data. The simulations suggest an advantage of using ICO in patients with type I UF failure, where UF with a high-MW osmotic agent will exceed that seen in patients not showing UF failure who are on glucose-based PD solutions. (+info)
The morphological identification of pathogenic yeasts using carbohydrate media.
Eight isolates of C. albicans were used to determine the frequency with which germ tube formation occurred: on rice extract -Tween 80 agar, on its components, and on 1% bactopeptone agar after three hr at 37 degrees C; in 0.5% aqueous solution of various carbohydrates; in various concentrations of glucose; on 0.5 and 0.1% glucose agar and on various types of agar alone. Subsequently 250 isolates of yeast of the genera Candida, Torulopsis, Trichosporon, Cryptococcus, and Saccharomyces, which were obtained from a clinical laboratory, were spread on rice extract -Tween 80 agar and on 0.1% glucose agar and covered with coverslips. Direct microscopic examination after incubation for three hours at 37 degrees C demonstrated germ tube formation by all 140 isolates of C. albicans, but by none of the other yeasts. The characteristic features of the pseudomycelia of isolates of Candida and Trichosporon were evident on reexamination after a further 45 to 69 hours at room temperature (22 degrees C). These morphological observations suggested the identity of the isolates of Torulopsis, Cryptococcus, and Saccharomyces but identified virtually all (98.2%) of those of the genera which formed pseudomycelia. Of the latter group only four isolates required fermentation and assimilation tests to determine whether they were C. parapsilosis (1) or C. guilliermondii (3). (+info)
A novel carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductase from Microdochium nivale.
A Microdochium nivale carbohydrate:acceptor oxidoreductase was purified, cloned, heterologously expressed, and characterized. The gene encoding the protein showed one intron, and the ORF showed a sequence with low homology (< or = 25% identity or 65% similarity) to other known flavin-containing carbohydrate oxidases. The maturation of the protein required the cleavage of a tetrameric propeptide in addition to an 18 amino-acid signal peptide. The enzyme was found to have a relative molecular mass of 55 000 Da, an isoelectric point of 9, and one FAD per protein. It could oxidize mono-, oligo-, or polymeric saccharides, and transfer their electrons to O2 or other acceptors. When D-glucose served as electron-donating substrate, an activity of 2 s(-1) was observed at pH 5.5 and 23 degrees C. Among various oligosaccharides, the enzyme preferred tetrameric dextrins, indicating a favorable interaction of four linked glucose units with the substrate pocket. The unique structure and ability of oxidizing oligo/polymeric saccharides suggest a promising prospect of this enzyme for various industrial/medicinal applications. (+info)
Chronic ethanol consumption exacerbates microcirculatory damage in rat mesentery after reperfusion.
Although the negative effect of excessive alcohol consumption on later stressful events has long been recognized, pathophysiological mechanisms are incompletely understood. We examined possible roles of oxygen radicals and glutathione content in mesenteric venules of chronically ethanol-fed rats exposed to ischemia-reperfusion. Changes in microvascular hemodynamics, such as red blood cell (RBC) velocity, leukocyte adherence, and albumin extravasation, were monitored in postcapillary venules by intravital fluorescence microscopy. Chronic ethanol feeding significantly exaggerated the magnitude of the decrease in RBC velocity, the increased number of adherent leukocytes, and increased albumin leakage elicited by 10 min of ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Oxidative stress in the endothelium of venules monitored by dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR) fluorescence was more severe in rats fed ethanol chronically. Both superoxide dismutase and N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which is known to increase glutathione content, reduced the ischemia-reperfusion-induced decrease in RBC velocity, the number of adherent leukocytes, and the increase in albumin leakage, as well as oxidative activation of DHR. This suggests that the increased reperfusion-induced microvascular disturbances in the mesenteric venules of rats fed ethanol chronically are significantly correlated with excessive production of oxygen-derived free radicals and decreased glutathione synthesis. (+info)
Amino acid residues involved in substrate binding and catalysis in an insect digestive beta-glycosidase.
A beta-glycosidase (M(r) 50000) from Spodoptera frugiperda larval midgut was purified, cloned and sequenced. It is active on aryl and alkyl beta-glucosides and cellodextrins that are all hydrolyzed at the same active site, as inferred from experiments of competition between substrates. Enzyme activity is dependent on two ionizable groups (pK(a1)=4.9 and pK(a2)=7.5). Effect of pH on carbodiimide inactivation indicates that the pK(a) 7.5 group is a carboxyl. k(cat) and K(m) values were obtained for different p-nitrophenyl beta-glycosides and K(i) values were determined for a range of alkyl beta-glucosides and cellodextrins, revealing that the aglycone site has three subsites. Binding data, sequence alignments and literature beta-glycosidase 3D data supported the following conclusions: (1) the groups involved in catalysis were E(187) (proton donor) and E(399) (nucleophile); (2) the glycone moiety is stabilized in the transition state by a hydrophobic region around the C-6 hydroxyl and by hydrogen bonds with the other equatorial hydroxyls; (3) the aglycone site is a cleft made up of hydrophobic amino acids with a polar amino acid only at its first (+1) subsite. (+info)