(1/2888) Effect of intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leg compression on incidence of postoperative pulmonary embolism.

The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was measured in 50 matched pairs of patients undergoing common surgical procedures with preoperative and postoperative ventilation-perfusion lung scans and the fibrinogen uptake test. One patient in each pair was treated with intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leggings. The incidence of pulmonary embolism among the treated patients was significantly reduced from 24% to 8%, but the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly reduced (34% to 24%).  (+info)

(2/2888) Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit.

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

(3/2888) Interaction of inflammatory cells and oral microorganisms. II. Modulation of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte hydrolase release by polysaccharides in response to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis.

The release of lysosomal hydrolases from polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) has been postulated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury in periodontal disease. In the present study, lysosomal enzyme release was monitored from rabbit peritoneal exudate PMNs exposed to Streptocccus mutans or Streptococcus sanguis. S. mutans grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth failed to promote significant PMN enzyme release. S. sanguis grown in BHI broth, although more effective than S. mutants, was a weak stimulus for promotion of PMN hydrolase release. Preincubation of washed, viable S. mutans in sucrose or in different-molecular-weight dextrans resulted in the ability of the organisms to provoke PMN release reactions. This effect could bot be demonstrated with boiled or trypsinized S. mutans or with viable S. sanguis. However, when grown in BHI broth supplemented with sucrose, but not with glucose, both S. mutans and S. sanguis triggered discharge of PMN enzymes. The mechanism(s) whereby dextran or sucrose modulates PMN-bacterial interaction may in some manner be related to promotion of microbial adhesiveness or aggregation by dextran and by bacterial synthesis of glucans from sucrose.  (+info)

(4/2888) Glomerular size-selective dysfunction in NIDDM is not ameliorated by ACE inhibition or by calcium channel blockade.

BACKGROUND: In patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and overt nephropathy glomerular barrier size-selectivity progressively deteriorates with time and is effectively improved by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition. Whether similar glomerular functional changes develop in proteinuric patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and whether antihypertensive agents can favorably affect glomerular filtration of macromolecules in these patients, has not been documented yet. METHODS: We investigated renal hemodynamics and fractional clearance of neutral dextrans of graded sizes, in nine proteinuric patients with NIDDM and renal biopsy findings of typical diabetic glomerulopathy. Six healthy volunteers served as controls. We also investigated the effects of an ACE inhibitor and of a calcium channel blocker, both given in doses targeted to achieve a comparable level of systemic blood pressure control, on glomerular hemodynamics and sieving function. Theoretical analysis of glomerular macromolecule transport was adopted to evaluate intrinsic glomerular membrane permeability properties. RESULTS: Fractional clearance of large macromolecules (42 to 66 A in radius) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in controls, and the distribution of membrane pore radii was calculated to be shifted towards larger pore sizes in diabetics (mean radius increased from 55 to 60 A). Despite effective blood pressure control, neither antihypertensive affected glomerular hemodynamics to any significant extent. Fractional clearance of dextrans, as well as of albumin and IgG, and total urinary proteins were not modified by either treatments. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that patients with NIDDM and overt nephropathy develop abnormalities in size-selective function of the glomerular barrier and, at variance to IDDM, such changes were not ameliorated either by ACE inhibition or calcium channel blockade.  (+info)

(5/2888) Poly(L-lysine)-graft-dextran copolymer promotes pyrimidine motif triplex DNA formation at physiological pH. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies.

Extreme instability of pyrimidine motif triplex DNA at physiological pH severely limits its use for artificial control of gene expression in vivo. Stabilization of the pyrimidine motif triplex at physiological pH is therefore of great importance in improving its therapeutic potential. To this end, isothermal titration calorimetry interaction analysis system and electrophoretic mobility shift assay have been used to explore the thermodynamic and kinetic effects of our previously reported triplex stabilizer, poly (L-lysine)-graft-dextran (PLL-g-Dex) copolymer, on pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH. Both the thermodynamic and kinetic analyses have clearly indicated that in the presence of the PLL-g-Dex copolymer, the binding constant of the pyrimidine motif triplex formation at physiological pH was about 100 times higher than that observed without any triplex stabilizer. Of importance, the triplex-promoting efficiency of the copolymer was more than 20 times higher than that of physiological concentrations of spermine, a putative intracellular triplex stabilizer. Kinetic data have also demonstrated that the observed copolymer-mediated promotion of the triplex formation at physiological pH resulted from the considerable increase in the association rate constant rather than the decrease in the dissociation rate constant. Our results certainly support the idea that the PLL-g-Dex copolymer could be a key material and may eventually lead to progress in therapeutic applications of the antigene strategy in vivo.  (+info)

(6/2888) Polymer structure and solubility of deoxyhemoglobin S in the presence of high concentrations of volume-excluding 70-kDa dextran. Effects of non-s hemoglobins and inhibitors.

Earlier observations indicated that volume exclusion by admixed non-hemoglobin macromolecules lowered the polymer solubility ("Csat") of deoxyhemoglobin (Hb) S, presumably by increasing its activity. In view of the potential usefulness of these observations for in vitro studies of sickling-related polymerization, we examined the ultrastructure, solubility behavior, and phase distributions of deoxygenated mixtures of Hb S with 70-kDa dextran, a relatively inert, low ionic strength space-filling macromolecule. Increasing admixture of dextran progressively lowered the Csat of deoxyHb S. With 12 g/dl dextran, a 5-fold decrease in apparent Csat ("dextran-Csat") was obtained together with acceptable sensitivity and proportionality with the standard Csat when assessing the effects of non-S Hb admixtures (A, C, and F) or polymerization inhibitors (alkylureas or phenylalanine). The volume fraction of dextran excluding Hb was 70-75% of total deoxyHb-dextran (12 g/dl) volumes. Electron microscopy showed polymer fibers and fiber-to-crystal transitions indistinguishable from those formed without dextran. Thus when Hb quantities are limited, as with genetically engineered recombinant Hbs or transgenic sickle mice, the dextran-Csat provides convenient and reliable screening of effects of Hb S modifications on polymerization under near-physiological conditions, avoiding problems of high ionic strength.  (+info)

(7/2888) Cytokine-mediated inflammatory hyperalgesia limited by interleukin-4.

1. The effect of IL-4 on responses to intraplantar (i.pl.) carrageenin, bradykinin, TNFalpha, IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2 was investigated in a model of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats. Also, the cellular source of the IL-4 was investigated. 2. IL-4, 30 min before the stimulus, inhibited responses to carrageenin, bradykinin, and TNFalpha, but not responses to IL-1beta, IL-8 and PGE2. 3. IL-4, 2 h before the injection of IL-1beta, did not affect the response to IL-1beta, whereas IL-4, 12 or 12+2 h before the IL-1beta, inhibited the hyperalgesia (-30%, -74%, respectively). 4. In murine peritoneal macrophages, murine IL-4 for 2 h before stimulation with LPS, inhibited (-40%) the production of IL-1beta but not PGE2. Murine IL-4 (for 16 h before stimulation with LPS) inhibited LPS-stimulated PGE2 but not IL-1beta. 5. Anti-murine IL-4 antibodies potentiated responses to carrageenin, bradykinin and TNFalpha, but not IL-1beta and IL-8, as well as responses to bradykinin in athymic rats but not in rats depleted of mast cells with compound 40/80. 6. These data suggest that IL-4 released by mast cells limits inflammatory hyperalgesia. During the early phase of the inflammatory response the mode of action of the IL-4 appears to be inhibition of the production TNFalpha, IL-1beta and IL-8. In the later phase of the response, in addition to inhibiting the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-4 also may inhibit the release of PGs.  (+info)

(8/2888) Heterogeneity in the ability of cytotoxic murine NK cell clones to enhance Ig secretion in vitro.

We recently described a panel of cytotoxic murine NK cell clones that also enhanced Ig secretion by B cells activated in an in vitro model of T cell-independent type 2 (TI-2) responses. We employed dextran-conjugated anti-IgD (alphadelta-dex) as a model antigen. Here we study the mechanism of Ig induction by these clones. Addition of the various NK clones to sort-purified B cells stimulated with alphadelta-dex and IL-2 resulted in a markedly heterogeneous increase in Ig secretion, which varied from 3-fold, as mediated by clone PKO 56, to 15-fold, as induced by clone PKO 101. The other NK cells showed intermediate levels of Ig induction. Furthermore, while addition of as few as 0.04% of PKO 101 cells stimulated significant increases and 1% induced near maximum Ig production, a 3% addition of PKO 56 cells was required for significant enhancement of Ig secretion. Supernatant material collected from the NK clones mediated Ig production at levels that mirrored the induction by the corresponding cells. Cytokine analysis showed that while all members of the NK panel produced IFN-gamma only two secreted granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor and that the levels of Ig induction mediated by the NK clones correlated only with their levels of IFN-gamma secretion. Culture of B and NK cells in the presence of anti-IFN-gamma demonstrated that IFN-gamma was the critical cytokine in NK-induced Ig production. These findings establish heterogeneity in the ability of NK cells to increase Ig secretion in vitro and show that NK-produced IFN-gamma is an important factor in determining this heterogeneity.  (+info)