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(1/482) Solid-state NMR and hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a bilayer-solubilized peptide: structural and mechanistic implications.

Hydrogen-deuterium exchange has been monitored by solid-state NMR to investigate the structure of gramicidin M in a lipid bilayer and to investigate the mechanisms for polypeptide insertion into a lipid bilayer. Through exchange it is possible to observe 15N-2H dipolar interactions in oriented samples that yield precise structural constraints. In separate experiments the pulse sequence SFAM was used to measure dipolar distances in this structure, showing that the dimer is antiparallel. The combined use of orientational and distance constraints is shown to be a powerful structural approach. By monitoring the hydrogen-deuterium exchange at different stages in the insertion of peptides into a bilayer environment it is shown that dimeric gramicidin is inserted into the bilayer intact, i.e., without separating into monomer units. The exchange mechanism is investigated for various sites and support for a relayed imidic acid mechanism is presented. Both acid and base catalyzed mechanisms may be operable. The nonexchangeable sites clearly define a central core to which water is inaccessible or hydroxide or hydronium ion is not even momentarily stable. This provides strong evidence that this is a nonconducting state.  (+info)

(2/482) Polarization-modulated FTIR spectroscopy of lipid/gramicidin monolayers at the air/water interface.

Monolayers of gramicidin A, pure and in mixtures with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), were studied in situ at the air/H2O and air/D2O interfaces by polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Simulations of the entire set of amide I absorption modes were also performed, using complete parameter sets for different conformations based on published normal mode calculations. The structure of gramicidin A in the DMPC monolayer could clearly be assigned to a beta6.3 helix. Quantitative analysis of the amide I bands revealed that film pressures of up to 25-30 mN/m the helix tilt angle from the vertical in the pure gramicidin A layer exceeded 60 degrees. A marked dependence of the peptide orientation on the applied surface pressure was observed for the mixed lipid-peptide monolayers. At low pressure the helix lay flat on the surface, whereas at high pressures the helix was oriented almost parallel to the surface normal.  (+info)

(3/482) Estimation of rat muscle blood flow by microdialysis probes perfused with ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O.

We used the perfused rat hindquarter to evaluate whether the microdialysis ethanol technique can be used to qualitatively estimate nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow. Four microdialysis probes were inserted in different hindlimb muscles in each of 16 rats. Hindquarters were perfused at blood flow rates ranging from 0 to 21 ml. 100 g-1. min-1. The microdialysis probes were perfused at 2 microliter/min with perfusate containing ethanol, [14C]ethanol, and 3H2O. Within and between experiments outflow-to-inflow ratios (o/i) generally varied inversely with blood flow. When a low flow or no flow was maintained in hindquarters, o/i ratios first increased with time (for at least 60 min) and then leveled off. The long time constant impaired detection of rapid oscillations in blood flow, especially at low blood flow rates. Contractions per se apparently decreased o/i ratios independent of blood flow. Ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios did not differ. 3H2O o/i paralleled ethanol and [14C]ethanol o/i ratios but it was significantly lower. In conclusion, differences in skeletal muscle blood flow can be detected by the microdialysis technique. However, the slow changes in o/i, in particular at low blood flow rates, limit the usefulness of the technique for measuring dynamic changes in blood flow; caution must also be exerted during muscle contractions. 3H2O and [14C]ethanol are good alternatives to ethanol in the determination of blood flow by microdialysis.  (+info)

(4/482) Contributions of net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis to glucose production in cirrhosis.

Net hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis were examined in normal (n = 4) and cirrhotic (n = 8) subjects using two independent methods [13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and a 2H2O method]. Rates of net hepatic glycogenolysis were calculated by the change in hepatic glycogen content before ( approximately 11:00 PM) and after ( approximately 7:00 AM) an overnight fast using 13C NMR and magnetic resonance imaging. Gluconeogenesis was calculated as the difference between the rates of glucose production determined with an infusion of [6,6-2H2]glucose and net hepatic glycogenolysis. In addition, the contribution of gluconeogenesis to glucose production was determined by the 2H enrichment in C-5/C-2 of blood glucose after intake of 2H2O (5 ml/kg body water). Plasma levels of total and free insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF-I binding proteins-1 and -3 were significantly decreased in the cirrhotic subjects (P < 0.01 vs. controls). Postprandial hepatic glycogen concentrations were 34% lower in the cirrhotic subjects (P = 0.007). Rates of glucose production were similar between the cirrhotic and healthy subjects [9.0 +/- 0.9 and 10.0 +/- 0.8 micromol. kg body wt-1. min-1, respectively]. Net hepatic glycogenolysis was 3.5-fold lower in the cirrhotic subjects (P = 0.01) and accounted for only 13 +/- 6% of glucose production compared with 40 +/- 10% (P = 0.03) in the control subjects. Gluconeogenesis was markedly increased in the cirrhotic subjects and accounted for 87 +/- 6% of glucose production vs. controls: 60 +/- 10% (P = 0.03). Gluconeogenesis in the cirrhotic subjects, as determined from the 2H enrichment in glucose C-5/C-2, was also increased and accounted for 68 +/- 3% of glucose production compared with 54 +/- 2% (P = 0.02) in the control subjects. In conclusion, cirrhotic subjects have increased rates of gluconeogenesis and decreased rates of net hepatic glycogenolysis compared with control subjects. These alterations are likely important contributing factors to their altered carbohydrate metabolism.  (+info)

(5/482) Conversion of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose by the rmIC gene products of Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

dTDP-rhamnose is made from glucose-1-phosphate and dTTP by four enzymes encoded by rmIA-D. An Escherichia coli rmIC mutant was constructed and a crude enzyme extract prepared from it did not produce dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, in contrast to a crude enzyme extract prepared from a wild-type E. coli strain where small amounts of this intermediate were found after incubation with dTDP-glucose in the absence of NADPH. These results showed that dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose, the product of RmIC, exists as a free intermediate. Further, the Mycobacterium tuberculosis rmIC gene was expressed and incubation of the resulting purified M. tuberculosis RmIC enzyme with dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose resulted in the conversion of approximately 7% of dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose to dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose. The enzyme also allowed for the incorporation of two deuterium atoms from deuterium oxide solvent into dTDP-4-keto-glucose. Thus the rmIC gene encodes dTDP-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose epimerase capable of epimerizing at both C-3' and C-5'; this enzyme produces free dTDP-4-keto-rhamnose but the equilibrium of the 4-keto sugar nucleotides lies strongly on the side of the gluco configuration.  (+info)

(6/482) The use of a deuterium tracer technique to follow the fate of fluids ingested by human subjects: effects of drink volume and tracer concentration and content.

Deuterium oxide (2H2O) has been added to drinks as a tracer for water to estimate the availability to the body water pool of ingested fluids, but doubts have been raised as to the reliability of the method. The present investigation evaluated the effects of systematic variations in the volume of fluid consumed and the amount and concentration of added tracer on the rate of accumulation of tracer in arterialized blood after ingestion of a labelled drink. Three separate experiments were undertaken. In expt 1, six healthy men ingested on separate occasions 200, 400 and 800 ml of a dilute glucose-electrolyte solution: all test drinks contained the same concentration (40 g l-1) of 2H2O. In expt 2, six healthy men ingested 200, 400 and 800 ml of the same glucose-electrolyte drink: each drink contained 8 g of 2H2O so that the concentration, but not the amount, of 2H2O differed between treatments. In expt 3, six healthy men ingested 400 ml of the same drink on three separate occasions: each drink contained 8, 16 or 32 g of tracer so that amount and concentration of 2H2O both varied. Arterialized venous blood samples were collected for the determination of deuterium (2H) concentration before ingestion of the test drink and at intervals for 120 min after ingestion. All trials for each of the experiments were conducted in the morning after an overnight fast and trials were in randomized order and separated by 7 days. In expt 1, the blood 2H concentration at all time points from 2 min after ingestion of the test drink onwards was higher for the drink containing 32 g 2H2O than for the drink containing 16 g 2H2O, which in turn was higher than after ingestion of the drink containing 8 g of 2H2O. In expt 2, no significant differences between treatments were observed at any time. In expt 3, the rate of 2H accumulation was greater after ingestion of the drink containing 32 g of 2H2O than after either of the other two drinks, and the 2H accumulation rate was greater after ingestion of the drink containing 16 g of 2H2O than after the drink containing 8 g of 2H2O. When data from all three experiments were combined, significant correlations were observed between the rate of accumulation of 2H in the circulation (p.p.m. min-1) and the amount (rs = 0.75, P < 0001) and concentration (rs = 0.69, P < 0001) of 2H2O in the test drink, but there was no relationship (rs = 0.09, P = 0.5) between the rate of 2H accumulation in the blood and the volume of the drink consumed. The results suggest that the rate of tracer accumulation in the blood after ingestion of different volumes of test drinks is not a reliable indication of the availability of the ingested fluid, but that the method gives at least a qualitative measure of the sum of the effects of gastric emptying and intestinal water absorption.  (+info)

(7/482) Temperature jump-induced secondary structural change of the membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin in the premelting temperature region: a nanosecond time-resolved Fourier transform infrared study.

The secondary structural changes of the membrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin, are studied during the premelting reversible transition by using laser-induced temperature jump technique and nanosecond time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The helical structural changes are triggered by using a 15 degrees C temperature jump induced from a preheated bacteriorhodopsin in D2O solution at a temperature of 72 degrees C. The structural transition from alphaII- to alphaI-helices is observed by following the change in the frequency of the amide I band from 1667 to 1651 cm-1 and the shift in the frequency of the amide II vibration from 1542 cm-1 to 1436 cm-1 upon H/D exchange. It is found that although the amide I band changes its frequency on a time scale of <100 ns, the H/D exchange shifts the frequency of the amide II band and causes a complex changes in the 1651-1600 cm-1 and 1530-1430 cm-1 frequency region on a longer time scale (>300 ns). Our result suggests that in this "premelting transition" temperature region of bacteriorhodopsin, an intrahelical conformation conversion of the alphaII to alphaI leads to the exposure of the hydrophobic region of the protein to the aqueous medium.  (+info)

(8/482) Spectroscopic determination of the water pair potential.

A polarizable water pair potential was determined by fitting a potential form to microwave, terahertz, and mid-infrared (D2O)2 spectra through a rigorous calculation of the water dimer eigenstates. It accurately reproduces most ground state vibration-rotation-tunneling spectra and yields excellent second viral coefficients. The calculated dimer structure and dipole moment are very close to those determined from microwave spectroscopy and high-level ab initio calculations. The dimer binding energy and acceptor switching and donor-acceptor interchange tunneling barriers are in excellent agreement with recent ab initio theory, as are cyclic water trimer and tetramer structures and binding energies.  (+info)