Prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella in swine herds. (9/50)

The prevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were investigated by multiplex PCR using fecal samples of pigs with diarrhea or a history of diarrhea. The overall herd prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were 46.5%, 37.2% and 51.1%, respectively. Also, the prevalence of L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. among all sampled pigs were 19.9%, 10.8% and 17.7%, respectively. Seventeen of 43 herds were positive with 2 enteric organisms, and 2 herds were positive with L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. simultaneously. It was notable that 11 of 12 herds with more than 2,000 pigs were affected with Salmonella spp., and that only 2 of 12 the herds were affected with B. hyodysenteriae. This study suggested that herds positive for L. intracellularis, B. hyodysenteriae and Salmonella spp. were distributed throughout Korea, although the relationship among other pathogens such as viral or parasitic ones and/or with metabolic disorders was not determined.  (+info)

Experimental reproduction of proliferative enteropathy and the role of IFN-gamma in protective immunity against Lawsonia intracellularis in mice. (10/50)

Proliferative enteropathy was reproduced in IFN-gamma receptor knockout (IFN-gamma R-) mice by experimental infection with Lawsonia intracellularis (L. intracellularis). The cecum and the colon of the infected mice were evidently enlarged 2 weeks post infection. The presence of L. intracellularis was identified in the stool and the cecum of the mice after infection. However, high levels of IFN-gamma were detected in the sera of the infected mice 2 weeks PI. These data indicated that the IFN-gamma produced in the infected mice should have been utilized by it's receptor to elicit protective immune responses against L. intracellularis infections.  (+info)

Evaluation of porcine ileum models of enterocyte infection by Lawsonia intracellularis. (11/50)

The early interaction of Lawsonia intracellularis with host cells was examined with the use of porcine ileum models. Two conventional swine were anesthetized, and ligated ileum loops were prepared during abdominal surgery. The loops were inoculated with 108 L. intracellularis or saline. After 60 min, samples of each loop were processed for routine histologic and electron microscopic study. Histologic and ultrathin sections of all the loops appeared normal, with no apposition of bacteria and host cells or bacterial entry events in any loop. Portions of ileum from a single gnotobiotic piglet were introduced as xenografts into the subcutis of each flank of 5 weaned mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease. After 4 wk, 108 L. intracellularis were inoculated into each of 4 viable xenografts with a sterile needle; the other 3 viable xenografts received saline. Histologic and ultrathin sections of all the xenografts 3 wk after inoculation showed relatively normal porcine intestinal architecture, with normal crypts, crypt cell differentiation, and low villous structures; the xenografts treated with the bacteria also showed intracytoplasmic L. intracellularis within crypt and villous epithelial cells. Thus, entry of L. intracellularis into target epithelial cells and multiplication may not be sufficient alone to directly cause cell proliferation. A proliferative response may require active division of crypt cells and differentiation in conjunction with L. intracellularis growth.  (+info)

Isolation of Lawsonia intracellularis in Korea and reproduction of proliferative enteropathy in pigs and hamsters. (12/50)

Lawsonia intracellularis (L. intracellularis) was isolated from a Korean pig suffering acute proliferative enteropathy. In vitro culture conditions of L. intracellularis were established in McCoy cells. Pigs and hamsters experimentally infected with the pure culture of L. intracellularis reproduced clinical signs and intestinal lesions of proliferative enteropathy. The presence of L. intracellularis in the intestinal lesions was confirmed by immunohistochemistry with L. intracellularis-specific monoclonal antibodies.  (+info)

Effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles on the ability of growing pigs to resist a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. (13/50)

An experiment was conducted to determine if including distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet of growing pigs reduces the incidence or severity of infection after a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. Eighty 17-d-old weaned pigs were blocked by sex, ancestry, and BW and randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatment groups: negative control (NC), unchallenged, corn-soy diet; positive control (PC), challenged, corn-soy diet; 10% DDGS diet (10D), challenged; and 20% DDGS diet (20D), challenged. Challenged pigs were orally inoculated with 1.5 x 10(9) L. intracellularis organisms after a 4-wk prechallenge feeding period. On d 21 postchallenge, pigs were euthanized, lesions of intestinal mucosa were evaluated, and ileal tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to determine the presence and proliferation rate of L. intracellularis. Compared with unchallenged pigs, challenging pigs with L. intracellularis reduced growth rate, feed intake, and efficiency of gain (P < 0.01) and increased gauntness (P < 0.05) and diarrhea (P < 0.01). Diet did not affect growth performance postchallenge (P > 0.40). Feeding 10 or 20% DDGS diets did not reduce lesion length, prevalence, proliferation of L. intracellularis, or severity of lesions (P > 0.10). Thus, dietary inclusion of DDGS did not reduce the incidence or severity of lesions under the conditions of a severe L. intracellularis challenge used in this study.  (+info)

Effect of including distillers dried grains with solubles in the diet, with or without antimicrobial regimen, on the ability of growing pigs to resist a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. (14/50)

A disease challenge experiment was conducted to determine if including 10% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet, with or without antimicrobial supplementation, reduces the incidence or severity, or both, of intestinal lesions in growing pigs after an Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. One hundred 17-d-old weaned pigs were blocked by sex, ancestry, and BW and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatment groups: negative control, unchallenged, corn-soy diet; positive control, challenged, corn-soy diet; 10% DDGS diet, challenged; positive control with antimicrobial regimen, challenged; and 10% DDGS diet with antimicrobial regimen, challenged. For antimicrobial-supplemented treatments, diets contained 33 ppm bacitracin methylene disalicylate throughout the experiment, with chlortetracycline (Aureomycin) pulsed at 550 ppm from d 3 prechallenge to d 11 postchallenge. Challenged pigs were orally inoculated with 8.0 x 10(8) L. intracellularis organisms after a 4-wk prechallenge period. On d 21 postchallenge, pigs were euthanized, lesions of intestinal mucosa were evaluated, and ileal tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to determine the presence and proliferation rate of L. intracellularis. Compared with other dietary treatments, feeding a diet containing 10% DDGS reduced ileum and colon lesion length and prevalence (P < 0.05) and reduced severity of lesions in the ileum (P < 0.05) and colon (P < 0.10) in challenged pigs. Compared with other challenged pigs, those fed the diet containing the antimicrobial regimen had a lower prevalence and severity of lesions in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and tended to have reduced total tract lesion length (P = 0.11). Compared with other challenged pigs, pigs on the 10% DDGS diet with antimicrobial regimen exhibited no differences in length, severity, or prevalence of lesions (P > 0.15), but fecal shedding of L. intracellularis was reduced on d 14 postchallenge (P < 0.05). No dietary effects on fecal shedding were observed by d 20 postchallenge (P > 0.10). The proportion of cells infected with L. intracellularis was reduced when DDGS (P = 0.05) or antimicrobial (P = 0.10) diets were fed. Under the conditions of this experiment, dietary inclusion of 10% DDGS appears to provide some benefit to growing pigs subjected to a moderate L. intracellularis challenge, similar to those of a currently approved antimicrobial regimen.  (+info)

Effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles, soybean hulls, or a polyclonal antibody product on the ability of growing pigs to resist a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. (15/50)

An experiment was conducted to determine if dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), soybean hulls, or soybean hulls sprayed with an egg-based, polyclonal antibody product would reduce the incidence or severity of infection, or both, in growing pigs after a Lawsonia intracellularis challenge. One hundred 17-d-old weaned pigs were blocked by sex, ancestry, and BW, and randomly allotted to 1 of 5 treatment groups: negative control, unchallenged, corn-soy diet; positive control, challenged, corn-soy diet; 20% DDGS diet (D), challenged; 5% soybean hulls diet (SH), challenged; and SH sprayed with a polyclonal antibody product diet, challenged. Challenged pigs were orally inoculated with 6.4 x 10(8) L. intracellularis organisms after a 4-wk prechallenge feeding period. On d 21 postchallenge, pigs were euthanized, lesions of intestinal mucosa were evaluated, and ileal tissue samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to determine the presence and proliferation rate of L. intracellularis. Challenging pigs with L. intracellularis reduced growth rate, feed intake, and efficiency of gain (P < 0.02) and increased the proportion of internal organ weights relative to BW (P < 0.01). Dietary treatment did not affect growth performance pre- or postchallenge (P > 0.10). Heart, empty stomach, and liver weights were similar among dietary treatments (P > 0.10). Weight of the large intestine as a percentage of BW was increased in D and SH pigs compared with positive control pigs (P < 0.05). Lesion length, prevalence, and severity, and fecal shedding of L. intracellularis were primarily unaffected by dietary treatment (P > 0.10), although ileal lesion length and severity observed tended to be greater in the SH sprayed with polyclonal antibody product diet vs. the D pigs (P < 0.10). Results from a previous study indicated that diet composition may affect length, severity, and prevalence of lesions caused by L. intracellularis in growing pigs subjected to a moderate challenge. However, beneficial results were not observed by feeding the dietary treatments used in this study.  (+info)

In vitro cultivation and partial characterization of Lawsonia intracellularis from a Japanese field case of porcine proliferative enteropathy. (16/50)

Lawsonia intracellularis isolated from a Japanese field case of porcine proliferative enteropathy (PPE) was cultivated and partially characterized. The bacterial cells isolated from the intestinal mucosa of a pig suffering from the acute form of PPE were used to inoculate rat small intestine cells (IEC-18) and human epithelial cells (HEp-2). Infected foci, which were stained with L. intracellularis-specific rabbit antiserum, were observed in the cell culture at 5 days post inoculation. The DNA sequence of several genes in the Japanese isolate had high similarity with those of the L. intracellularis type strain, suggesting the genetically close relationship of the two strains. This is the first report describing the cultivation and partial characterization of L. intracellularis originated in Japan.  (+info)