Diagnostic and epidemiological features of Lawsonia intracellularis enteropathy in 2 foals. (17/50)

Two clinical cases of equine proliferative enteropathy are described. Both foals had a positive fecal polymerase chain reaction, but shedding of the bacterium stopped <4 days after therapy was initiated. One foal was serologically positive 3 days after onset of clinical signs and remained positive for more than 6 months.  (+info)

Human inflammatory bowel disease does not associate with Lawsonia intracellularis infection. (18/50)

BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that bacterial infection of the intestinal mucosa may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In pigs, an obligate intracellular bacterium, Lawsonia intracellularis (LI), was shown to cause proliferative enteropathy (PE) of which some forms display histological and clinical similarities to human IBD. Since LI-similar Desulfovibrio spp. may infect human cells, we hypothesized that LI might be associated with the development of human IBD. RESULTS: In human intestinal tissue samples, PCR using LLG, 50SL27, LSA and strictly LI-specific 16SII primers, yielded either no amplicons or products with weak homology to human genomic sequences. Sequencing of these amplicons revealed no specificity for LI. However, amplification of DNA with less specific 16SI primers resulted in products bearing homology to certain Streptococcus species. These 16SI-amplified products were present in healthy and diseased specimens, without obvious prevalence. CONCLUSION: LI is not associated with the pathogenesis of UC or CD. Whether an immunologic response to commensal bacteria such as streptococci may contribute to the chronic inflammatory condition in IBD, remained to be determined.  (+info)

Seroprevalence of Lawsonia intracellularis in different swine populations in 3 provinces in Canada. (19/50)

Porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis is an important enteric disease in swine throughout the world. Information regarding the distribution of this pathogen in Canadian swine herds would be beneficial for the creation of control protocols. Pigs from Ontario, Quebec, and Alberta were tested by using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to L. intracellularis. Pig seroprevalence was calculated as the proportion of pigs positive from total pigs tested in the targeted population. Seroprevalence (+/- standard error [s(x)]) in market hogs in Ontario from farrow-finish (FF) farms and finishing (FIN) farms were significantly different at 77% (s(x) = 7%) and 29% (s(x) = 15%), respectively. Seroprevalence for sows and gilts in FF and farrowing and nursery (FAR + NUR) farms in Ontario were 90% (s(x) = 3%) and 93% (s(x) = 6%), respectively. Seroprevalence in breeding females in Quebec from FF and FAR farms was 82% (s(x) = 5%) and 87% (s(x) = 3%), respectively. Seroprevalence (57%, s(x) = 8%) in finishing pigs in Alberta from FF farms was significantly different from that of multisite (MS) farms and FIN farms, 6% (s(x) = 6%) and 9% (s(x) = 5%), respectively. Lawsonia intracellularis appears to be widespread in Canada and the seroprevalence on FF farms is higher than that on FIN and MS farms, possibly due to the presence of breeding females or management differences.  (+info)

In situ hybridization for Lawsonia intracellularis--specific 16s rRNA sequence in paraffin-embedded tissue using a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe. (20/50)

An in situ hybridization (ISH) procedure with a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of Lawsonia intracellularis in paraffin-embedded tissue is described. This technique recognized 71% of PCR-positive cases and was thus superior to Warthin-Starry silver stain, which only detected 41%. The presented ISH is of comparable sensitivity to previously published immunohistochemical assays and is recommended for laboratories wishing to diagnose L. intracellularis infections in tissue sections but without access to antibodies.  (+info)

An outbreak of Lawsonia intracellularis infection in a standardbred herd in Ontario. (21/50)

An outbreak of protein-losing enteropathy associated with Lawsonia intracelluaris infection was diagnosed in 6 standardbred foals from a farm in Ontario. Wildlife exposure may have been involved in the perpetuation of disease in this outbreak. The clinical presentation, treatment, outcomes, and pathological findings are described.  (+info)

Development and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the diagnosis of porcine proliferative enteropathy. (22/50)

The objective of this study was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a sonicated pure culture of Lawsonia intracellularis as the antigen (So-ELISA). A total of 332 serum samples, consisting of 232 experimentally infected animals and 100 animals naturally infected with L. intracellularis, were used to assess the diagnostic sensitivity. Three hundred and fifty-five sera from uninfected animals were used to determine the diagnostic specificity. The receiver operating characteristic and mean +3 standard deviation of optical density (OD) values from uninfected animals were used for selecting cut-off points. The diagnostic accuracy of So-ELISA was considered to be high as the area under the curve index was 0.991 with 0.0029 standard error. The optimal cut-off for So-ELISA was set at 0.45 OD with 89.8% sensitivity and 99.4% specificity based on a combination of good sensitivity and high specificity. No cross-reactivity was found in sera from pigs exposed to Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae, Campylobacter mucosalis, C. jejuni, or C. coli. Inter- and intracoefficient of variation of all control sera tested with So-ELISA was less than 10%. The observed agreements between So-ELISA and the immunoperoxidase monolayer assay tested with experimental challenge animals and field samples were 95.08% with 0.88 kappa and 90.65% with 0.74 kappa value, respectively. So-ELISA was able to detect the seroconversion of infected animals at 2 to 4 weeks after exposure to L. intracellularis. Based on the validation results, So-ELISA could be used as an alternative serology for proliferative enteropathy diagnosis.  (+info)

Proliferative enteropathy involving Lawsonia intracellularis infection in rabbits (Oryctlagus cuniculus). (23/50)

Five rabbits suffering from diarrhea were diagnosed with proliferative enteropathy (PE). Histopathology revealed a thickened mucosa consisting of hyperplastic intestinal epithelium and infiltration of inflammatory cells mainly consisted of macrophages. In the affected epithelial cytoplasm, numerous curved bacillus-like organisms were observed in the Warthin-Starry silver stain and electron microscopy observation. In polymerase chain reactions, Lawsonia intracellularis-specific DNA fragment were amplified from affected ileal tissue extracted DNA in each case and present 5 cases were confirmed to be L. intracellularis infection. Serum collected from the affected rabbit was immunohistochemically reactive with L. intracellularis in tissue sections from pigs with porcine proliferative enteropathy, as well as with tissue sections from the five affected rabbits. Thus, serum obtained from the affected rabbit may be applicable to immunohistochemical detection for L. intracellularis infection in other species.  (+info)

Cultivation and characterization of Lawsonia intracellularis isolated from rabbit and pig. (24/50)

Lawsonia intracellularis is an obligate intracellular pathogenic bacterium that causes proliferative enteropathy in domestic and experimental animals. In this study, we improved the in vitro cultivation method of L. intracellularis to increase the passage efficiency and showed that L. intracellularis isolated from a rabbit and a pig have different antigenic properties. Bacteria should be recovered from infected cells before cell death due to infection to obtain higher bacterial passage efficiency, and measurement of LDH activity in the cell culture medium was useful for determining the timing of bacterial passage. L. intracellularis isolated from the rabbit and pig showed different band patterns in immunoblotting. Our results should be helpful in the development of serological diagnosis and epidemiological investigation methods.  (+info)