Structural elucidation of an uncommon phenylethylamine analogue in urine responsible for discordant amphetamine immunoassay results.
The present paper describes investigations following the analysis of a urine specimen containing important amounts of an unknown substance detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. FPIA analysis was positive (cutoff 0.3 mg/L) and Triage 8 rapid test was negative (cutoff 1 mg/L) for amphetamines. Considering the GC-MS spectrum, two different molecules, for example, N-ethyl-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)ethylamine (1) or N-ethyl-4-methoxyamphetamine (2), have been suspected. Synthesis of these two compounds was carried out together with spectral (MS, 1H and 13C NMR, IR, UV) and chromatographic (GC) characterization as well as determination of immunological cross reactivities (FPIA and Triage 8). The unknown compound present in the urine specimen has been finally identified as N-ethyl-4-methoxyamphetamine (2), an uncommon amphetamine analogue. (+info)
Interaction of p-fluorofentanyl on cloned human opioid receptors and exploration of the role of Trp-318 and His-319 in mu-opioid receptor selectivity.
In this study, we investigated the interactions of p-fluorofentanyl, an opioid designer drug, fentanyl, sufentanyl, and morphine on cloned human mu-, kappa-, and delta-opioid receptors coexpressed with heteromultimeric G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (GIRK1/GIRK2) and a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS4) in Xenopus oocytes. We demonstrate that p-fluorofentanyl more potently activates GIRK1/GIRK2 channels through opioid receptors than fentanyl and that the p-fluoro substitution also changes the potency profile from mu > kappa > delta (fentanyl) to mu > delta > or = kappa (p-fluorofentanyl). A comparison of ligand efficacy revealed that morphine, fentanyl, and its analogs less efficiently activate GIRK1/GIRK2 channels through human mu-opioid receptor than [D-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we investigated whether mutating residues Trp-318 and His-319 to their corresponding residues in kappa- and delta-opioid receptors provides the molecular basis for mu/delta selectivity and mu/kappa selectivity. Changes in EC(50) values for the W318L and W318Y/H319Y mu-opioid receptors show a partial contribution of these residues to the decreased GIRK1/GIRK2 channel activation by fentanyl analogs through kappa- and delta-opioid receptors. The most pronounced effect was observed for p-fluorofentanyl, suggesting that an interaction between the 4-fluorophenylpropanamide moiety of the drug and residues Trp-318 and His-319 is important for the resulting enhanced GIRK1/GIRK2 channel activation through the mu-opioid receptor. Finally, we demonstrate that mutation of W318L confers delta-like potency for morphine on the mutant mu-opioid receptor. (+info)
Determination of the designer drugs 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine with HPLC and fluorescence detection in whole blood, serum, vitreous humor, and urine.
BACKGROUND: The popular designer drugs 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and 3, 4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) can be determined in serum, whole blood, and urine, but also in vitreous humor. The latter matrix is interesting when dealing with decomposed bodies in a toxicological setting. METHODS: After extraction, chromatographic separation was achieved on a narrow-bore C(18) column by gradient elution with fluorometric detection; results were confirmed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). RESULTS: The method was linear over the range of 2-1000 microg/L for whole blood, serum, and vitreous humor, and 0.1-5 mg/L for urine. Extraction recoveries were >70%, imprecision (CV) was 2.5-19%, and analytical recoveries were 95.5-104.4%. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.8 and 2 microg/L, respectively, for whole blood, serum, and vitreous humor, and 2.5 microg/L and 0.1 mg/L, respectively, for urine. Excellent correlations between the quantitative LC-fluorescence and LC-MS/MS results were obtained. We found the following concentrations in a thanatochemical distribution study in rabbits: in serum, 5.3-685 microg/L for MDMA and from the LOQ to 14.5 microg/L for 3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA); in whole blood, 19.7-710 microg/L for MDMA and from the LOQ to 17.8 microg/L for MDA; in vitreous humor, 12.1-97.8 microg/L for MDMA and from the LOQ to 3.86 microg/L for MDA. In routine toxicological urine samples, concentrations ranged from LOQ to 14.62 mg/L for MDA, from LOQ to 157 mg/L for MDMA, and from LOQ to 32.54 mg/L for MDEA. CONCLUSIONS: The HPLC method described is sensitive, specific, and suitable for the determination of MDMA, MDEA, and MDA in whole blood, serum, vitreous humor, and urine. (+info)
Drug addiction. Part I. Psychoactive substances in the past and presence.
Substances capable of changing the functions of the central nervous system are widely distributed in plant kingdom, and many of them were discovered by ancient food-gatherers at the dawn of humanity. In the Old World only a few substances producing euphoria or altered states of consciousness and having habit-forming properties are still widely used. They are the products of poppy (opium, morphine), hemp (hashish, marijuana), and of fermentation of various organic materials alkohol. This list has recently been joined by the psilocybin-containing mushrooms. The addiction-forming compounds originated in the New World and widely spread are tobacco (nicotine) and cocaine. In the 19th and 20th, century the development of medicinal chemistry resulted in several synthetic compounds, originally proposed as therapeutics, such as barbiturates, benzodiazepines and amphetamines. Due to legal problems, to avoid production of the substances already prohibited, many designer drugs were manufactured. In addition, several compounds were synthesized as recreational drugs. Also some compounds that were not regarded as drugs, such as aromatic hydrocarbons and other cleansing agents, as well as steroids were found to have properties of dangerous, habit-forming agents. The attitude of society and the pattern of use of psychoactive substances have changed with time, particularly in the last decades. The active principles are now more addictive because of concentration, purification, chemical modifications and the way of ingestion, which now favors most rapid transport to the central nervous system. The substance abuse approaches the level of global epidemics, and the recent usage of drugs of addition is also reviewed. (+info)
Fully automated determination of amphetamines and synthetic designer drugs in hair samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
This study describes a fully automated procedure using alkaline hydrolysis and headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by on-fiber derivatization and gas chromatographic (GC)-mass spectrometric (MS) detection of amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylendioxyamphetamine, methylendioxymethamphetamine, methylendioxyethylamphetamine, methylendioxyphenylbutanamine, and methylmethylendioxyphenylbutanamine in human hair samples. Ten milligrams of hair is washed with deionized water, petroleum ether, and dichloromethane. After the addition of deuterated internal standards the sample is hydrolyzed with sodium hydroxide and directly submitted to HS-SPME. After the absorption of analytes for an on-fiber derivatization procedure the fiber is directly placed into the HS of a second vial containing N-methyl-bis(trifluoroacetamide) before GC-MS analysis. The limits of detection are determined between 0.01 and 0.17 ng/mg. Absolute analyte recoveries are in the range between 0.3% and 7.5%. Linearity is proven over a range from 0.1 to 50 ng/mg with coefficients of correlation from 0.998 to 1. In comparison with conventional methods of hair analysis, this fully automated HS-SPME-GC-MS procedure is substantially faster and easier to perform without using solvents. It uses minimal sample amounts and has the same degree of sensitivity and reproducibility. (+info)
Identification of cytochrome p450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of 4'-methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone, a novel scheduled designer drug, in human liver microsomes.
4'-Methyl-alpha-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (MPPP) is a new drug of abuse. It is believed to have an abuse potential similar to that of amphetamines. Previous studies with Wistar rats had shown that MPPP was metabolized mainly by hydroxylation in position 4' followed by dehydrogenation to the corresponding carboxylic acid. The aim of the study presented here was to identify the human hepatic cytochrome p450 (p450) enzymes involved in the biotransformation of MPPP to 4'-hydroxymethyl-pyrrolidinopropiophenone. Baculovirus-infected insect cell microsomes and human liver microsomes were used for this purpose. Only CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 catalyzed this hydroxylation. The apparent Km and Vmax values for the latter were 9.8 +/- 2.5 microM and 13.6 +/- 0.7 pmol/min/pmol p450, respectively. CYP2C19 was not saturable over the tested substrate range (2-1000 microM) and interestingly showed a biphasic kinetic profile with apparent Km,1 and Vmax,1 values of 47.2 +/- 12.5 microM and 8.1 +/- 1.4 pmol/min/pmol p450, respectively. Experiments with pooled human liver microsomes also revealed biphasic nonsaturable kinetics with apparent Km,1 and Vmax,1 values of 57.0 +/- 20.9 microM and 199.7 +/- 59.7 pmol/min/mg of protein for the high affinity enzyme, respectively. Incubation of 2 microM MPPP with 3 microM of the CYP2D6-specific inhibitor quinidine resulted in significant (p < 0.01) turnover inhibition (11.8 +/- 1.6% of control). Based on kinetic data corrected for the relative activity factors, CYP2D6 is the enzyme mainly responsible for MPPP hydroxylation, confirmed by CYP2D6 inhibition studies. (+info)
Foxy, a designer tryptamine hallucinogen.
Foxy is slang for 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine. It has hallucinogenic properties, similar to other tryptamine compounds, and is mildly euphoric. This case report describes a 21-year-old Caucasian man who ingested a pill called Foxy containing an unknown amount of drug. He was observed in hospital for 2 h, during which time he had mild hallucinations and could not move his limbs. A urine sample was collected approximately 4 h after drug ingestion. The patient was then discharged with no follow up assessment. The 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine was identified in the urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Standards prepared from the pure material were used in the identification. Quantitative analysis using the same analytical technique resulted in a urinary concentration of 1.7 micro g/mL. Through oxidative deamination, the metabolite, 5-methoxy-indole acetic acid, was formed. It was identified in the urine, and the concentration was determined to be 1.3 micro g/mL using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Two other compounds were discovered in the urine sample as a result of a routine drug screen. From their mass spectra, they were tentatively identified as 5-methoxy-N-isopropyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-diisopropyltryptamine-N'-oxide. (+info)
Fatality due to combined use of the designer drugs MDMA and PMA: a distribution study.
We present a fatal case involving the combined ingestion of amphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, and paramethoxyamphetamine. Various postmortem specimens (e.g., several blood samples, urine, and tissue samples) were analyzed to study the distribution of the compounds and their metabolites in the human body. Quantitation took place using liquid chromatography-sonic spray ionization-mass spectrometry after pretreatment with a liquid-liquid extraction. The medico-legal findings were compatible with a disseminated intravascular coagulation induced by hyperthermia caused by the simultaneous intake of the amphetamine analogues. (+info)