Three dimensional ultrasound and power doppler in assessment of uterine and ovarian angiogenesis: a prospective study.
AIM: To determine whether three-dimensional power Doppler can improve the recognition of pelvic tumor morphology and angiogenesis. METHODS: Using this technique we analyzed 180 adnexal masses and 110 uterine lesions. Tumor volume, morphology, and vascularity were evaluated in each patient. Irregular and randomly dispersed vessels with complex branching depicted by comprehensive three dimensional display were suggestive of pelvic malignancy, while linear-like vascular morphology, single vessel arrangement and regular branching were typical for benign structures. RESULTS: Addition of qualitative analysis of vascular architecture of adnexal tumor to morphological parameters reached 96.15% sensitivity and 98.73% specificity. When endometrial lesions were prospectively analyzed, sensitivity and specificity were 91.67% and 98.49%, respectively. Because the lowest positive predictive value of 16.67% was obtained for myometrial lesions, this method should not be advised for their eva luation. CONCLUSION: Good results achieved by three dimensional ultrasound can be explained by improved recognition of the pelvic lesion anatomy, characterization of the surface features, detection of the tumor infiltration, and precise depiction of the size and volume. Three dimensional power Doppler imaging can detect structural abnormalities of the malignant tumor vessels, such as arteriovenous shunts, microaneurysms, tumoral lakes, disproportional calibration, coiling, and dichotomous branching. Therefore it enhances and facilitates the morphologic and functional evaluation of both benign and malignant pelvic tumors. (+info)
Laparoscopic management of ovarian dermoid cysts: ten years' experience.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the safety and efficacy of laparoscopic management of ovarian dermoid cysts based upon our ten years' experience. METHODS: Charts of 81 patients who underwent laparoscopic removal of dermoid cysts since March 1988 at Stanford University Medical Center or the Center for Special Pelvic Surgery in Atlanta were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Ninety-three dermoid cysts with a mean diameter of 4.5 cm were removed in 81 patients. Operative techniques used were cystectomy for 70 cysts, salpingooophorectomy for 14, and 9 salpingo-oophorectomy with hysterectomy. Fifty-three cysts were treated via enucleation followed by cystectomy or salpingo-oophorectomy and removal through a trocar sleeve. Twenty-two were treated via enucleation and removal within an impermeable sack. Nine were treated via enucleation and removal by posterior colpotomy. Nine were removed via colpotomy following hysterectomy. We had a total of 39 spillages. Spillage rates varied with removal method: 32 (62%) for trocar removal without an endobag, 3 (13.6%) for removal within an endobag, and 4 (40%) with colpotomy removal. No spillage occurred for the nine patients who had a colpotomy done for hysterectomy. Mean hospital stay after surgery was 0.98 days, and there were no intraoperative complications. In one case, there was a postoperative complication of an incisional infection in the umbilicus. CONCLUSION: Including this and 13 other studies, review of the literature reveals a 0.2% incidence of chemical peritonitis following laparoscopic removal of dermoid cysts. Thus, we conclude that laparoscopic management of dermoid cysts is a safe and beneficial method in selected patients when performed by an experienced laparoscopic surgeon. (+info)
Ruptured intracranial dermoids: magnetic resonance imaging.
Rupture of intracranial dermoids tumour is rare and carries with it the risk of significant morbidity as well as fatality. Three cases that presented with varying symptoms ranging from headache to chiasmatic compression and suspected to have rupture of dermoid tumour are described. The importance of MR imaging in their diagnosis is discussed. (+info)
Multiple dermoid cysts of omentum.
Dermoid cyst of the omentum is an extremely rare condition. We report a case of multiple dermoid cysts of omentum in a 50 years old woman. The aetiopathogenesis, clinical presentation and relevant literature is briefly reviewed. (+info)
Epithelial and muscle antigens in benign cystic teratomas of ovary.
Thirty beign cystic teratomas of the ovary were studied by immunofluroesecence, using specific human antisera for (a) squamous epithelial intercellular areas (pemphigus sera), (b) squamous epithelial basement membranes (bullous pemphigoid sera), (c) smooth muscle (chronic active hepatitis sera, and (d) striated muscle (thymona sera). Squamous epithelial intercellular staining was seen in all specimens and was present in the basal cell layers as well as in the prickle cell layers, suggesting a slow regeneration rate for the squamous epithelial lining of these tumors. Well-formed basement membranes were identified at the periphery of all squamous epithelial structures. Smooth muscle was found in 73% of the neoplasms, and the immunoflurorescent findings correlated with light microscopy. No skeletal muscle components were identified. Within the limits of the antibodies used and the antigens detected, these resutlts support the concept that benign ovarian cystic teratomas are composed of mature, heterotopic tissue elements. (+info)
Contrast-enhanced sonography in the examination of benign and malignant adnexal masses.
Our objective was to characterize the properties of an intravascular ultrasonographic contrast agent in examination of adnexal masses and to compare contrast agent properties between benign and malignant adnexal tumors. Fifty-eight consecutively examined women with suspected ovarian tumors were examined preoperatively by power Doppler ultrasonography, first without and then with contrast agent enhancement (Levovist). Fourteen women had ovarian cancer, 3 had borderline ovarian tumors, 18 had benign ovarian neoplasms, and 23 had functional adnexal cystic masses or endometriomas. The effect of the contrast agent was evaluated visually and by using computerized power Doppler signal intensity measurements. In visual evaluation, the brightness of the power Doppler signal and the amount of recognizable vascular areas increased in each tumor after contrast agent administration. The number of vessels in power Doppler ultrasonograms, both before and after contrast agent enhancement, was significantly higher in malignant than in benign adnexal masses, as also was the increase in the number of recognizable vessels after contrast agent administration. Contrast agent uptake time was significantly shorter in malignant than in benign tumors. No significant differences were found in the power Doppler signal intensities or their changes between benign and malignant tumors. In conclusion, use of sonographic contrast agent facilitates imaging of tumor vessels. For differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, the kinetic properties of the contrast agent, such as uptake and washout times, may have more potential than the use of the contrast agent in anatomic imaging of the tumor vessels. (+info)
Sonographic and clinical characteristics of struma ovarii.
Our objective was to evaluate the preoperative clinical, laboratory, and sonographic characteristics of struma ovarii in comparison to ovarian dermoid cysts. A retrospective review of gynecologic patients operated on for mature cystic teratoma over a 10 year period identified 12 cases of struma ovarii. These cases, combined with 4 additional cases from an earlier report, were the subject of this study. Results were compared to 32 cases of ovarian dermoid cysts. Ovarian struma ovarii occurred in 12 (4.8%) of 251 cases of ovarian dermoid cysts. Most patients were premenopausal, and the mean lesion diameter was 57.3 mm (range, 30-95 mm). Struma ovarii occurred more frequently (68.8%) in the right adnexa and was seen with a normal CA-125 level. Blood flow, assessed by Doppler ultrasonography, was located in the center of the lesion in all cases of struma ovarii. Rare cases were seen with elevated tumor markers and low resistance blood flow. With regard to dermoid cysts, blood flow had a higher resistive index. In addition, no blood flow could be detected from the center of the echoic lesion in dermoid cysts (P < 0.0001). In summary, it is difficult to distinguish between struma ovarii and dermoid cysts on the basis of their sonographic appearance. Nevertheless, Doppler flow may aid in the preoperative diagnosis of struma ovarii. Blood flow signals, detected from the center of the echoic lesion, and low resistance to flow may be more common in struma ovarii. (+info)
The characterization of common ovarian cysts in premenopausal women.
OBJECTIVES: The evaluation of the predictive value of transvaginal ultrasound in the assessment of benign adnexal pathology in premenopausal women, based on the recognition of characteristic morphologic patterns particular to endometriotic and dermoid ovarian cysts. METHODS: This was a prospective study. All premenopausal women undergoing surgery for a suspected ovarian cyst underwent a transvaginal ultrasound examination in the week prior to surgery. Between June 1997 and January 2000, 132 women underwent surgery for a suspected ovarian endometrioma or dermoid cyst. The endpoints were either the direct visualization of the cyst wall and contents at surgery, or the histologic evaluation of removed tissues. RESULTS: Of 83 suspected endometriomas (11 bilateral), 80 were confirmed at surgery and of 68 suspected benign cystic teratomas (eight bilateral), 66 were confirmed by histology. The positive predictive value of transvaginal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of endometrioma and dermoid cysts was 96.4% and 97.1%, respectively. The false positive rates were 3.8% and 3.0%, respectively. There were no malignancies in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the recognition of characteristic ultrasound patterns alone, the positive predictive value of transvaginal ultrasonography for the diagnosis of these common, benign cysts in premenopausal women is very high and can be used reliably to select women for appropriate surgery. (+info)