Characteristics of spontaneous erythema appeared in hairless rats.
The hairless rat (WBN/Kob-Ht), a dominant mutant rat derived from the Wistar strain, rarely develops spontaneous erythema of a progressive nature on its skin. Erythema was first observed at 8 weeks of age and the incidence at 20 weeks of age was about 4% in both males and females. Histopathologically, erythema was characterised by dermatitis induced by an immunological reaction. Areas of erythema in the skin were decreased by treatment with dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) or ciclosporin (25 or 50 mg/kg). These results suggested that erythema on the hairless rat could be used as an animal model of spontaneous dermatitis. (+info)
Topical psoriasis therapy.
Psoriasis is a common dermatosis, affecting from 1 to 3 percent of the population. Until recently, the mainstays of topical therapy have been corticosteroids, tars, anthralins and keratolytics. Recently, however, vitamin D analogs, a new anthralin preparation and topical retinoids have expanded physicians' therapeutic armamentarium. These new topical therapies offer increased hope and convenience to the large patient population with psoriasis. (+info)
Topical therapy for acne.
Acne is a common problem in adolescents and young adults. The disorder is caused by abnormal desquamation of follicular epithelium that results in obstruction of the pilosebaceous canal. This obstruction leads to the formation of comedones, which can become inflamed because of overgrowth of Propionibacterium acnes. Topical retinoids such as tretinoin or adapalene are effective in many patients with comedonal acne. Patients with inflammatory lesions benefit from treatment with benzoyl peroxide, azelaic acid or topical antibiotics. Frequently, the use of comedonal and antibacterial agents is required. (+info)
Treatment of psoriasis: an algorithm-based approach for primary care physicians.
Psoriasis is characterized by red, thickened plaques with a silvery scale. The lesions vary in size and degree of inflammation. Psoriasis is categorized as localized or generalized, based on the severity of the disease and its overall impact on the patient's quality of life and well-being. Patient education about the disease and the treatment options is important. Medical treatment for localized psoriasis begins with a combination of topical corticosteroids and coal tar or calcipotriene. For lesions that are difficult to control with initial therapy, anthralin or tazarotene may be tried. The primary goal of therapy is to maintain control of the lesions. Cure is seldom achieved. If control becomes difficult or if psoriasis is generalized, the patient may benefit from phototherapy, systemic therapy and referral to a physician who specializes in the treatment of psoriasis. (+info)
Update on psoriasis therapy: a perspective from the USA.
Because physicians from different nations frequently acquire the use of a new medication at different times, the international exchange of experiences with the new medication is valuable in maximizing its efficacy worldwide. In recent years, many new therapeutic agents have been approved for treating psoriasis in the United States. These include the topical agent calcipotriol and the systemic agents acitretin and cyclosporine. In addition to new agents, a new therapeutic paradigm, sequential therapy, has been introduced recently. It is the hope of the authors that by sharing this paradigm and experiences with these agents in the United States, dermatologists in Japan may gain further insight into optimizing the use of these agents in the treatment of psoriasis. (+info)
Systematic review of comparative efficacy and tolerability of calcipotriol in treating chronic plaque psoriasis.
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of topical calcipotriol in the treatment of mild to moderate chronic plaque psoriasis. DESIGN: Quantitative systematic review of randomised controlled trials. SUBJECTS: 6038 patients with plaque psoriasis reported in 37 trials. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean difference in percentage change in scores on psoriasis area and severity index, and response rate ratios for both patients' and investigators' overall assessments of marked improvement or better. Adverse effects were estimated with the rate ratio, rate difference, and number needed to treat. RESULTS: Calcipotriol was at least as effective as potent topical corticosteroids, calcitriol, short contact dithranol, tacalcitol, coal tar, and combined coal tar 5%, allantoin 2%, and hydrocortisone 0.5%. Calcipotriol caused significantly more skin irritation than potent topical corticosteroids (number needed to treat to harm for irritation 10, 95% confidence interval 6 to 34). Calcipotriol monotherapy also caused more irritation than calcipotriol combined with a potent topical corticosteroid (6, 4 to 8). However, the number needed to treat for dithranol to produce lesional or perilesional irritation was 4 (3 to 5). On average, treating 23 patients with short contact dithranol led to one more patient dropping out of treatment owing to adverse effects than if they were treated with calcipotriol. CONCLUSIONS: Calcipotriol is an effective treatment for mild to moderate chronic plaque psoriasis, more so than calcitriol, tacalcitol, coal tar, and short contact dithranol. Only potent topical corticosteroids seem to have comparable efficacy at eight weeks. Although calcipotriol caused more skin irritation than topical corticosteroids this has to be balanced against the potential long term effects of corticosteroids. Skin irritation rarely led to withdrawal of calcipotriol treatment. Longer term comparative trials of calcipotriol versus dithranol and topical corticosteroids are needed to see whether these short term benefits are mirrored by long term outcomes such as duration of remission and improvement in quality of life. (+info)
Antileishmanial activities of stearylamine-bearing liposomes.
Here we report the activity of liposomes comprising egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and stearylamine (SA) against Leishmania donovani parasites. Both promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes in vitro and in vivo were susceptible to SA-PC liposomes. A single dose of 55 mg of SA-PC liposomes/animal could significantly reduce the hepatic parasite burden by 85 and 68% against recent and established experimental visceral leishmaniasis, respectively, suggesting their strong therapeutic potential. (+info)
Long term follow up of topical mustine treatment for cutaneous langerhans cell histiocytosis.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Skin lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) are often painful and difficult to treat. Topical application of nitrogen mustard (0.02% mechlorethamine hydrochloride, mustine), an alkylating cytostatic agent, has been shown to be effective. There is, however, concern about potentially harmful long term side effects. STUDY DESIGN: In a retrospective study 20 children with LCH (average extent of initial skin involvement: 16.4% body surface) were followed up for an average of 8.3 years after completion of topical mustine therapy. They had received a total of 34 courses (mean duration 14.2 weeks) of topical mustine. Disease status on follow up was assessed according to the Histiocyte Society classification. RESULTS: After mustine was introduced, 16 patients were able to discontinue systemic steroids and/or chemotherapy. Topical mustine was well tolerated in 18 patients, but two developed irritant dermatitis. On follow up, the disease was inactive in 10 patients. Among the children with active disease, six had mild skin disease and four had progressive disease, two of them with skin lesions unresponsive to mustine treatment. Scars confined to areas of formerly active skin disease were found in six patients. There was no evidence of premalignant or malignant skin disease in the treated areas. CONCLUSION: Topical mustine is an effective and safe treatment for skin disease in most children with LCH. Residual scarring was probably a result of the disease itself rather than to mustine. Although no evidence of skin cancer was found in this study, continued long term follow up is advisable. (+info)