Coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis: further studies of their relationship.
Using diagnostic criteria which are currently accepted as most reliable we have found that 19% (9/47) of patients with dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) have no evidence of coeliac disease. The incidence of HL-A8 in the DH patients was 78%, which is considerably greater than that in healthy controls and no different from that reported in coeliac disease. Furthermore, the incidence of HL-A8 was just as much increased in those DH patients without evidence of coeliac disease suggesting that HL-A8 is associated with DH per se--that is, regardless of its association with coeliac disease. (+info)
The widening spectrum of celiac disease.
Celiac disease is a permanent intolerance to ingested gluten that results in immunologically mediated inflammatory damage to the small-intestinal mucosa. Celiac disease is associated with both human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and non-HLA genes and with other immune disorders, notably juvenile diabetes and thyroid disease. The classic sprue syndrome of steatorrhea and malnutrition coupled with multiple deficiency states may be less common than more subtle and often monosymptomatic presentations of the disease. Diverse problems such as dental anomalies, short stature, osteopenic bone disease, lactose intolerance, infertility, and nonspecific abdominal pain among many others may be the only manifestations of celiac disease. The rate at which celiac disease is diagnosed depends on the level of suspicion for the disease. Although diagnosis relies on intestinal biopsy findings, serologic tests are useful as screening tools and as an adjunct to diagnosis. The treatment of celiac disease is lifelong avoidance of dietary gluten. Gluten-free diets are now readily achievable with appropriate professional instruction and community support. Both benign and malignant complications of celiac disease occur but these can often be avoided by early diagnosis and compliance with a gluten-free diet. (+info)
Patchiness and duodenal-jejunal variation of the mucosal abnormality in coeliac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.
The incidence and degree of patchiness of mucosal abnormality in both coeliac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is documented. As judged by both stereomicroscopy and subjective histology, patchiness occurred frequently in both CDand DH patients. In most cases the difference of abnormality was of only one grade, but in approximately 25% as assessed by stereomicroscopy and 10% as assessed by histology the difference was of two or more grades. In control subjects with normal small bowel mucosa the variation of the mucosal appearance between the duodenum and proximal jejunum was studied. Contrary to popular belief, no significant difference of villous and crypt measurements or of apparent villous "bridging" and "branching" between these two sites was found, if only well-orientated sections were studied. The stereomicroscopic appearances were also similar at these two sites, although villi tended to be broader in the duodenal biopsies. The duodenal-jejunal variation was also studied in CD and DH patients and although by both stereomicroscopy and subjective histology the appearances were similar in most patients, in approximately 33% the duodenal abnormality was the most severe and, surprisingly, the jejunal abnormality was more severe in approximately 15%. It is concluded that multiple, precisely located biopsies of both the duodenum and proximal jejunum are invaluable in the investigation of small bowel disease and in assessing response to treatment. (+info)
Enhanced expression of human metalloelastase (MMP-12) in cutaneous granulomas and macrophage migration.
Accumulation of inflammatory cells such as macrophages may lead to degeneration of connective tissue matrix in various skin diseases. Macrophage metalloelastase, is a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-12) capable of degrading elastin as well as various basement membrane components. To investigate the role of human macrophage metalloelastase in skin, we assessed by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry 66 specimens representing skin diseases characterized either by changes in elastic fibers or by pronounced infiltrations of extravasating and migrating macrophages. CD68 immunostaining was performed to identify the human macrophage metalloelastase-positive cells and Weigert's Resorcin-Fuchsin staining to reveal the status of elastic fibers. We found abundant expression of human macrophage metalloelastase mRNA in macrophages in areas devoid of normal elastic fibers in granulomatous skin diseases sarcoidosis, necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum, and granuloma annulare. Positive cells for human macrophage metalloelastase protein could be detected in the same regions as well as positive immunostaining for urokinase plasminogen activator. Of the other matrix metalloproteinases capable of degrading elastin, 92 kDa gelatinase colocalized with human macrophage metalloelastase, while 72 kDa gelatinase was produced by surrounding fibroblast-like cells. Furthermore, human macrophage metalloelastase was expressed by macrophages in areas with disrupted basement membrane, as assessed by type IV collagen staining, in pityriasis lichenoides and dermatitis herpetiformis. Specimens of anetoderma, acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans and pseudoxanthoma elasticum showed no signal for human macrophage metalloelastase. Matrilysin was not detected in any of the samples investigated. Our study suggests that human macrophage metalloelastase may contribute to elastin degradation occurring in granulomatous skin diseases and may aid macrophage migration through the epidermal and vascular basement membranes in inflammatory disorders. (+info)
Antibodies to tissue transglutaminase as serologic markers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.
Dermatitis herpetiformis is a gluten-sensitive disease with a symmetrically distributed blistering over extensor surfaces. The association with celiac disease is further supported by the high rate of immunoglobulin A autoantibodies to endomysium in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, which are highly specific and sensitive indicators of celiac disease. Therefore, we determined immunoglobulin A antibodies to tissue transglutaminase, the recently discovered endomysial autoantigen in celiac disease, in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis and controls. Sera of 61 patients with dermatitis herpetiformis, as characterized by granular immunoglobulin A deposits in the subepidermal basement membrane and known endomysial antibody titers (determined by indirect immunofluorescence) as well as 84 control sera of patients with dermal or intestinal diseases unrelated to dermatitis herpetiformis, were analyzed for circulating immunoglobulin A antibodies to tissue transglutaminase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Immunoglobulin A anti-tissue transglutaminase titers in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis were significantly elevated above the controls. Furthermore, the immunoglobulin A anti-tTG titers showed a positive correlation with semiquantitative endomysial antibody data. Compared with endomysial antibodies, determination of immunoglobulin A anti-tissue transglutaminase reached a specificity and sensitivity of 97.6% and 89.1%. Patients with dermatitis herpetiformis have elevated immunoglobulin A autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase, confirming its pathogenic relation with celiac disease and further supporting the usefulness of this novel assay for screening and therapy control. (+info)
Concordance of dermatitis herpetiformis and celiac disease in monozygous twins.
Celiac disease can be defined as the classical manifestation of gluten sensitivity, which primarily affects the small intestine. Gluten sensitivity has also a skin manifestation, i.e., dermatitis herpetiformis. Both diseases have a strong genetic association with HLA DQ on chromosome 6. In this study we tried to estimate how much different clinical expressions of gluten sensitivity are determined by genetic factors, and hence how feasible they are for genetic mapping; therefore, we studied all six monozygous twin pairs found among 1292 prospectively collected patients of dermatitis herpetiformis in Finland. Three of the six twin pairs were concordant for dermatitis herpetiformis and for simultaneous enteropathy, celiac disease. Two other twin pairs were partially discordant, one of each pair had dermatitis herpetiformis and celiac disease, whereas the other had solely the gut manifestation of gluten sensitivity, i.e., celiac disease. Only one pair was found to be discordant for gluten sensitivity. All the pairs had typical risk alleles for gluten sensitivity, i.e., either HLA DQ2 or DQ8. These results demonstrate that the genetic component in gluten sensitivity as broadly defined is very strong (5/6 concordant). Genetically identical individuals can have clearly distinguished phenotypes, either dermatitis herpetiformis or celiac disease, suggesting that environmental factors determine the exact phenotype of this multifactorial disease. These findings are of importance in genetic linkage analyses, which focus to only certain phenotypic properties of a complex trait. (+info)
Parallel expression of macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) in duodenal and skin lesions of patients with dermatitis herpetiformis.
BACKGROUND: Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is a specific dermatological manifestation of coeliac disease and 80% of DH patients have gluten sensitive enteropathy manifested by crypt hyperplasia and villous atrophy. Matrix degradation mediated by collagenase 1 (MMP-1) and stromelysin 1 (MMP-3) has previously been implicated in the pathobiology of coeliac intestine and cutaneous DH blisters. AIMS: To study expression of stromelysin 2, metalloelastase, collagenase 3, and matrilysin in the intestine and skin of DH patients. METHODS: In situ hybridisation using 35S labelled cRNA probes was performed on duodenal biopsies of 15 DH patients, three samples each of control duodenal or jejunal mucosa, fetal ileal explants, lesional DH skin, and 19 serial biopsies of experimental DH blisters. Immunostaining was used to examine type IV collagen, macrophages (CD68), and 92 kDa gelatinase (MMP-9) in the specimens. RESULTS: Metalloelastase (MMP-12) was abundantly expressed by subepithelial macrophages in both coeliac intestine and spontaneous and induced DH rash. It was also upregulated in the experimental model of coeliac disease (staphylococcal endotoxin B stimulated fetal explants). The only other MMP detected was MMP-9 which did not colocalise with MMP-12. CONCLUSIONS: Upregulation of metalloelastase is associated with T cell mediated immune responses both in the intestine and skin. In addition to modulating macrophage migration, it may contribute to degradation of proteoglycans or basement membrane components in the subepithelial mucosa. (+info)
Candidate gene regions and genetic heterogeneity in gluten sensitivity.
BACKGROUND: Gluten sensitivity is a common multifactorial disorder, manifested in the small intestine or on the skin as typical coeliac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis, respectively. The only established genetic risk factor is HLA DQ2. AIMS: We tested genetic linkage of previously reported chromosomal loci 5q and 11q in Finnish families with gluten sensitivity. We also tested if genetic linkage to candidate loci on 5q, 11q, 2q33, and HLA DQ differed with respect to clinical manifestations or sex. SUBJECTS: We studied 102 Finnish families with affected sibpairs. For heterogeneity analysis, families were divided into subgroups according to sex and the presence of dermatitis herpetiformis, the skin manifestation of gluten sensitivity. METHODS: Non-parametric linkage between microsatellite markers and disease was tested. Linkage heterogeneity between subgroups was tested using the M test. The transmission/disequilibrium test and association analysis were performed. RESULTS: Evidence of linkage to 11q (MLS 1.37), but not to 5q, was found in the entire dataset of 102 families. Heterogeneity between subgroups was suggested: families with only the intestinal disease showed linkage mainly to 2q33 whereas families with dermatitis herpetiformis showed linkage to 11q and 5q, but not to 2q33. Linkage in all three non-HLA loci was strongest in families with predominantly male patients. HLA DQ2 conferred much stronger susceptibility to females than males. CONCLUSIONS: Independent evidence for the suggested genetic linkage between 11q and gluten sensitivity was obtained. The possible linkage heterogeneity suggests genetic differences between intestinal and skin manifestations, and the gender dependent effect of HLA DQ2. (+info)