(1/569) Molecular cloning and characterization of a human uronyl 2-sulfotransferase that sulfates iduronyl and glucuronyl residues in dermatan/chondroitin sulfate.
A partial-length human cDNA with a predicted amino acid sequence homologous to a previously described heparan sulfate iduronyl 2-sulfotransferase (Kobayashi, M., Habuchi, H., Yoneda, M., Habuchi, O., and Kimata, K. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 13980-13985) was obtained by searching the expressed sequence-tagged data bank. Northern blot analysis was performed using this homologous cDNA as a probe, which demonstrated ubiquitous expression of messages of 5.1 and 2.0 kilobases in a number of human tissues and in several human cancer cell lines. Since the human lymphoma Raji cell line had the highest level of expression, it was used to isolate a full-length cDNA clone. The full-length cDNA was found to contain an open reading frame that predicted a type II transmembrane protein composed of 406 amino acid residues. The cDNA in a baculovirus expression vector was expressed in Sf9 insect cells, and cell extracts were then incubated together with 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate and potential glycosaminoglycan acceptors. This demonstrated substantial sulfotransferase activity with dermatan sulfate, a small degree of activity with chondroitin sulfate, but no sulfotransferase activity with desulfated N-resulfated heparin. Analysis of [35S]sulfate-labeled disaccharide products of chondroitin ABC, chondroitin AC, and chondroitin B lyase treatment demonstrated that the enzyme only transferred sulfate to the 2-position of uronyl residues, which were preponderantly iduronyl residues in dermatan sulfate, but some lesser transfer to glucuronyl residues of chondroitin sulfate. (+info)
(2/569) Dermatan sulfate activates nuclear factor-kappab and induces endothelial and circulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1.
Proteoglycans (PGs) can influence cell behaviors through binding events mediated by their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains. This report demonstrates that chondroitin sulfate B, also known as dermatan sulfate (DS), a major GAG released during the inflammatory phase of wound repair, directly activates cells at the physiologic concentrations of DS found in wounds. Cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells exposed to DS responded with rapid nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA, and increased ICAM-1 cell surface protein. Heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfates A and C had no effect on activation of NF-kappaB or induction of ICAM-1. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activation blocked the effect of DS. The increase in cell surface ICAM-1 did not involve TNF-alpha or IL-1 release by endothelial cells, but it was facilitated by autocrine factors whose release was initiated by DS. The ICAM-1-inductive activity of DS was confirmed in vivo. Injection of DS, but not heparin or other chondroitin sulfates, into mice greatly increased circulating levels of soluble ICAM. These data provide evidence that DS, but not other GAGs, initiates a previously unrecognized cell signaling event that can act during the response to injury. (+info)
(3/569) Fluorometric measurement of urinary alpha-L-iduronidase activity.
A fluorogenic substrate for alpha-L-iduronidase, 4-methylumbelliferyl alpha-L-iduronide, has been newly synthesized and the enzyme activity has been measured in urine samples obtained from normal persons and patients suffering from mucopolysaccharidosis. Urine samples derived from a patient with Scheie syndrome showed greatly reduced activity compared with a normal adult at a similar age. This patient exhibited a high level of urinary excretion of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate, which could be interpreted in terms of her low alpha-L-iduronidase activity. The use of the fluorogenic substrate has some advantages over existing methods because of the high sensitivity and the relative ease of handling, and it should be useful not only for diagnosis but also for following the purification process of the enzyme. (+info)
(4/569) Proteoglycans contribution to association of Lp(a) and LDL with smooth muscle cell extracellular matrix.
Lp(a) interference with fibrinolysis could contribute to atherothrombosis. Additionally, accumulation of Lp(a) and LDLs, could lead to cholesterol deposition and foam cell formation in atherogenesis. The interactions between Lp(a) and LDL could cause their entrapment in the extracellular matrix of lesions. We found that association of Lp(a) with matrix secreted by cultured human arterial smooth muscle cells increased 2 to 3 times the subsequent specific binding of radioactive LDL. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans seem responsible for formation of the specific matrix-Lp(a) and matrix-LDL aggregates. The proteoglycans appeared also to participate in a cooperative increase of radioactive LDL binding to matrix pretreated with Lp(a). In the matrix preincubated with LDL, approximately 50% of the additional lipoprotein was bound by ionic interactions. In the matrix preincubated with Lp(a), 20% of the additional LDL was held by ionic bonds, and the rest was held by strong nonionic associations. Binding analysis in physiological solutions confirmed that chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycans from the smooth muscle cell matrix have a high affinity for Lp(a) and LDL. The results provide an explanation to the observed localization of Lp(a) and LDL in the extracellular matrix of arterial lesions and suggest a mechanism for their cooperative accumulation there. (+info)
(5/569) Effect of danaparoid sodium on proteinuria, von Willebrand factor, and hard exudates in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.
In diabetic nephropathy, heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan side chains are reduced in glomerular basement membranes proportionally to the degree of proteinuria. Recently, it was demonstrated that additional therapy with danaparoid sodium, a mixture of sulfated glycosaminoglycans with mainly heparan sulfate, lowered proteinuria in type 1 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy. A randomized placebo-controlled parallel study was performed with 750 anti-Xa units of danaparoid sodium once daily in type 2 diabetes patients with severe proteinuria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effects of danaparoid sodium on proteinuria, endothelial dysfunction, and hard exudates in the retina and to determine the safety/tolerability of this drug. Twenty-two patients completed the study, and one patient had to stop prematurely after 6 wk of danaparoid sodium treatment because of urticaria at the injection sites. Apart from a small decrease of hemoglobin and minor skin hematomas at the injection site in five patients in the danaparoid sodium group, no other safety parameters showed any clinically or statistically significant difference between and within groups. The relative change in time of both the urinary albumin and protein excretion rate corrected for creatinine did not differ between both treatment arms (P = 0.2 and 0.49, respectively). No retinal complications or changes of hard exudates occurred. von Willebrand factor was elevated in both groups, but was not influenced by either treatment modality. Contrary to the beneficial effects that occurred in type 1 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy, treatment for 8 wk with 750 anti-Xa units of danaparoid sodium gave no reduction of proteinuria, hard exudates, and von Willebrand factor. (+info)
(6/569) Intracellular accumulation of secreted proteoglycans inhibits cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. Co-transfer of glycosaminoglycans to the nucleus.
Molecules secreted by potential target cells may interfere with cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer. This has been studied using human lung fibroblasts and human epidermoid lung cancer cells. Secreted cell medium components caused a substantial decrease both in the uptake of cationic lipid-DNA complexes (2-4-fold) and in reporter gene expression (100-1000-fold). Metabolic labeling of the cell medium showed that especially [35S]sulfate-labeled macromolecules competed with DNA for binding to the cationic lipid. Release of DNA from the cationic lipid by cell medium components was demonstrated by an ethidium bromide intercalation assay. In the presence of the cationic lipid, the secreted macromolecules were internalized by the cells. By enzymatic digestions, it was shown that the competing macromolecules consist of chondroitin/dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate proteoglycans and that the effects on transfection were mediated by the polyanionic glycosaminoglycan portion of the proteoglycan. Accordingly, pretreatment of cell medium with the polycationic peptide protamine sulfate abrogated the inhibitory effects on gene transfer. Fluorescence microscopy studies revealed that heparan sulfate, internalized as a complex with cationic lipids, accumulated in the cell nuclei. These results support the view that the lack of specificity of this type of gene transfer vehicle is a major hindrance to efficient and safe in vivo administration. (+info)
(7/569) Demonstration of a novel sulfotransferase in fetal bovine serum, which transfers sulfate to the C6 position of the GalNAc residue in the sequence iduronic acid alpha1-3GalNAc beta1-4iduronic acid in dermatan sulfate.
A novel sulfotransferase activity was discovered in fetal bovine serum using pig skin dermatan sulfate as an acceptor and [35S]3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate as a sulfate donor. The enzyme was separated from chondroitin:GalNAc 6-O-sulfotransferase by chromatographic techniques. Enzymatic analysis of the reaction products demonstrated that the enzyme transferred sulfate to the C6 position of the GalNAc residue in the sequence -iduronic acid alpha1-3GalNAc beta1-4iduronic acid-. Thus, the enzyme has been identified as a hitherto unreported dermatan sulfate:GalNAc 6-O-sulfotransferase. The finding is in sharp contrast to the current concept that in dermatan sulfate biosynthesis GalNAc 4-O-sulfation is a prerequisite for iduronic acid formation by C5 epimerase. (+info)
(8/569) Quantitative alterations of hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate in the hairless mouse dorsal skin exposed to chronic UV irradiation.
The quantitative alterations of hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate in the upper dermis (fibrous tissue) and the lower dermis (adipose tissue) of the hairless mouse skin chronically exposed to the UV irradiation as solar-simulating irradiation (lambda(max) 352 nm, UV distribution: 300-310 nm, 0.9%; 310-320 nm, 2.0%; 320-420 nm, 97.1%) were evaluated. Hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate contents in each part of dermis were determined as follows: skin sections on a glass slide prepared by histological technique were processed into the upper dermis and the lower dermis with a small surgical knife, and treated with chondroitinase ABC and ACII in the presence of bacterial collagenase. The resulting unsaturated disaccharides were determined by HPLC method. By applying this method to the UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin, it was found that the chronic UV irradiation increased dermatan sulfate in the upper dermis, whereas an increase of hyaluronan content was not statistically significant. In the lower dermis, on the contrary, both hyaluronan and dermatan sulfate contents remarkably increased as compared with the control mice. Furthermore, the histological study showed the accumulation of the collagen fibers in the lower dermis of the UV-irradiated hairless mouse skin following the disappearance of adipocytes. These findings indicate that the increases of glycosaminoglycan contents in the UV-irradiated skin are related to the accumulation of the extracellular matrix components in the lower dermis. (+info)